LBC Publications



SPIE Proceedings 2008, R. Speziali et al, "The Large Binocular Camera: description and performances of the first binocular imager" (download).


Poster of proceeding at SPIE 2008.




Other Publications


Ranzani 1, 40127, Bologna, Italy.), AG(Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903.), AH(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio, Italy.), AI(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio, 5, I-35122 Padova, Italy.), AJ(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio, Italy.), AK(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio, 5, I-35122 Padova, Italy.), AL(Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany.), AM(Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany.), AN(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio, Italy.), AO(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127, Bologna, Italy.), AP(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio, Italy.), AQ(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio, 5, I-35122 Padova, Italy.), AR(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio, Italy.), AS(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio, Italy.), AT(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste, Italy.), AU(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio, 5, I-35122 Padova, Italy.), AV(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste, Italy.), AW(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio, Italy.), AX(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste, Italy.), AY(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio, Italy.), AZ(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio, Italy.), BA(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze, Italy.) Publication: The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 679, Issue 1, pp. 712-719. (ApJ Homepage) Publication Date: 05/2008 Origin: UCP ApJ Keywords: Stars: Blue Stragglers, galaxies: clusters: individual (M53), Galaxy: Globular Clusters: General, Stars: Evolution Abstract Copyright: (c) 2008: The American Astronomical Society DOI: 10.1086/587689 Bibliographic Code: 2008ApJ...679..712B

Abstract

We used a proper combination of high-resolution and wide-field multiwavelength observations collected at three different telescopes (HST, LBT, and CFHT) to probe the blue straggler star (BSS) population in the globular cluster M53. Almost 200 BSSs have been identified over the entire cluster extension. The radial distribution of these stars has been found to be bimodal (similar to that of several other clusters) with a prominent dip at ~60" (~2rc) from the cluster center. This value turns out to be a factor of 2 smaller than the radius of avoidance (ravoid, the radius within which all the stars of ~1.2 Msolar have sunk to the core because of dynamical friction effects in a Hubble time). While in most of the clusters with a bimodal BSS radial distribution, ravoid has been found to be located in the region of the observed minimum, this is the second case (after NGC 6388) where this discrepancy is noted. This evidence suggests that in a few clusters the dynamical friction seems to be somehow less efficient than expected. We have also used this database to construct the radial star density profile of the cluster; this is the most extended and accurate radial profile ever published for this cluster, including detailed star counts in the very inner region. The star density profile is reproduced by a standard King Model with an extended core (~25") and a modest value of the concentration parameter (c=1.58). A deviation from the model is noted in the most external region of the cluster (at r>6.5' from the center). This feature needs to be further investigated in order to address the possible presence of a tidal tail in this cluster.

Based on observations with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA HST, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Also based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University; and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota and University of Virginia. This research used the facilities of the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre operated by the National Research Council of Canada with the support of the Canadian Space Agency.



Title:              The Spitzer MIPSGAL Asteroid Survey
Authors:            Ryan, Erin L.; Carey, S.; Mizuno, D.;
                    Woodward, C.; MIPSGAL Science Team
Affiliation:        AA(Univ. of Minnesota), AB(Spitzer Science Center), 
                    AC(Boston College), AD(Univ. of Minnesota), AE()
Publication:        American Astronomical Society, AAS Meeting #212, 
                    #4.04
Publication Date:   05/2008
Origin:             AAS
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2008: American Astronomical Society
Bibliographic Code: 2008AAS...212.0404R

Abstract

We present the first asteroid results from the Spitzer MIPSGAL Legacy program. This program represents the first mid-infrared data set which samples the ecliptic plane to

a consistent depth of 1 mJy at 24 micron for ecliptic latitudes of -0.7 to 14.2 degrees.

Our results include asteroid number counts as a function of ecliptic latitude (ranging from 40 asteroids per square degree at 0 degrees latitude to 10 asteroids per square degree at 15 degrees latitude) and diameter/albedo determinations for all known asteroids in the field (approximately 650). The asteroid number counts will also be compared to other programs by the authors, including an optical survey with the LBT and mid-infrared observations from the Spitzer IRAC instrument.

This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology under

a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA in part through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.



Title:              The performance of the blue prime focus large 
                    binocular camera at the large binocular telescope
Authors:            Giallongo, E.; Ragazzoni, R.; Grazian, A.;
                    Baruffolo, A.; Beccari, G.; de Santis, C.;
                    Diolaiti, E.; di Paola, A.; Farinato, J.;
                    Fontana, A.; Gallozzi, S.; Gasparo, F.;
                    Gentile, G.; Green, R.; Hill, J.; Kuhn, O.;
                    Pasian, F.; Pedichini, F.; Radovich, M.;
                    Salinari, P.; Smareglia, R.; Speziali, R.;
                    Testa, V.; Thompson, D.; Vernet, E.; Wagner, R. M.
Affiliation:        AA(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via 
                    Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio, Italy 
                    ), AB(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy), AC(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio, Italy), AD(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy), AE(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy), AF(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio, Italy), AG(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy), AH(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio, Italy), AI(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy), AJ(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio, Italy), AK(INAF -!
  Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio, Italy), AL(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste, Italy), AM(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy), AN(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721-0065, USA), AO(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721-0065, USA), AP(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721-0065, USA), AQ(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste, Italy), AR(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio, Italy), AS(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy), AT(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy), AU(INAF - Osservato!
 rio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Triest!
 e, Italy
), AV(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio, Italy), AW(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio, Italy), AX(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721-0065, USA), AY(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy ; European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany), AZ(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721-0065, USA) 

Publication:        Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 482, Issue 1, 
                    2008, pp.349-357 (A&A Homepage)
Publication Date:   04/2008
Origin:             EDP
Keywords:           instrumentation: detectors, methods: data analysis, 
                    techniques: image processing, surveys, galaxies: 
                    photometry
DOI:                10.1051/0004-6361:20078402
Bibliographic Code: 2008A&A...482..349G

Abstract

Aims. We present the characteristics and some early scientific results of the first instrument at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), the Large Binocular Camera (LBC). Each LBT telescope unit will be equipped with similar prime focus cameras. The blue channel is optimized for imaging in the UV-B bands and the red channel for imaging in the VRIz bands. The corrected field-of-view of each camera is approximately 30 arcmin in diameter, and the chip area is equivalent to a 23×23 arcmin2 field. In this paper we also present the commissioning results of the blue channel. Methods: The scientific and technical performance of the blue channel was assessed by measurement of the astrometric distortion, flat fielding, ghosts, and photometric calibrations. These measurements were then used as input to a data reduction pipeline applied to science commissioning data. Results: The measurements completed during commissioning show that the technical performance of the blue channel is in agreement with original expectations. Since the red camera is very similar to the blue one we expect similar performance from the commissioning that will be performed in the following months in binocular configuration. Using deep UV image, acquired during the commissioning of the blue camera, we derived faint UV galaxy-counts in a ~ 500 sq. arcmin sky area to U(Vega) = 26.5. These galaxy counts imply that the blue camera is the most powerful UV imager presently available and in the near future in terms of depth and extent of the field-of-view. We emphasize the potential of the blue camera to increase the robustness of the UGR multicolour selection of Lyman break galaxies at redshift z ~ 3.


Title:              Discovery of the Dust-Enshrouded Progenitor of SN 
                    2008S with Spitzer
Authors:            Prieto, J. L.; Kistler, M. D.; Thompson, T. A.;
                    Yuksel, H.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.;
                    Beacom, J. F.; Martini, P.; Pasquali, A.;
                    Bechtold, J.
Publication:        eprint arXiv:0803.0324
Publication Date:   03/2008
Origin:             ARXIV
Keywords:           Astrophysics
Comment:            ApJ letters, in press; corrected a typo
Bibliographic Code: 2008arXiv0803.0324P

Abstract

We report the discovery of the progenitor of the recent type IIn SN 2008S in the nearby galaxy NGC 6946. Surprisingly, it was not found in deep, pre-explosion optical images of its host galaxy taken with the Large Binocular Telescope, but only through examination of archival Spitzer mid-IR data. A source coincident with the SN 2008S position is clearly detected in the 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 micron IRAC bands, showing no evident variability in the three years prior to the explosion, yet is undetected at 3.6 and 24 micron. The distinct presence of ~440 K dust, along with stringent LBT limits on the optical fluxes, suggests that the progenitor of SN 2008S was engulfed in a shroud of its own dust. The inferred luminosity of 3.5x10^4 Lsun implies a modest mass of ~10 Msun. We conclude that objects like SN 2008S are not exclusively associated with the deaths or outbursts of very massive eta Carinae-like objects. This conclusion holds based solely on the optical flux limits even if our identification of the progenitor with the mid-IR source is incorrect.


Title:              LBT Discovery of a Yellow Supergiant Eclipsing 
                    Binary in the Dwarf Galaxy Holmberg IX
Authors:            Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.;
                    Weisz, D. R.; Baruffolo, A.; Bechtold, J.;
                    Burwitz, V.; De Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.;
                    Garnavich, P. M.; Giallongo, E.; Hill, J. M.;
                    Pogge, R. W.; Ragazzoni, R.; Speziali, R.;
                    Thompson, D. J.; Wagner, R. M.
Affiliation:        AA(Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 
                    Columbus, OH 43210.), AB(Department of Astronomy, 
                    Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.), 
                    AC(Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 
                    Columbus, OH 43210.), AD(Department of Astronomy, 
                    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455.), 
                    AE(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, I-35122 
                    Padova, Italy.), AF(Steward Observatory, University 
                    of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721.), 
                    AG(Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische 
                    Physik, Giessenbachstraße, 85741 Garching, 
                    Germany.), AH(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di 
                    Roma, I-00040 Monteporzio, Italy.), AI(INAF, 
                    Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, I-00040 
                    Monteporzio, Italy.), AJ(University of Notre Dame, 
                    Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670.), AK(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Roma, I-00040 Monteporzio, Italy.), 
                    AL(LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, 
                    AZ 85721-0065.), AM(Department of Astronomy, Ohio 
                    State University, Columbus, OH 43210.), AN(INAF, 
                    Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, I-35122 Padova, 
                    Italy.), AO(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, 
                    I-00040 Monteporzio, Italy.), AP(LBT Observatory, 
                    University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065.), 
                    AQ(Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 
                    Columbus, OH 43210.; LBT Observatory, University of 
                    Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065.)
Publication:        The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 673, Issue 1, pp. 
                    L59-L62. (ApJ Homepage)
Publication Date:   01/2008
Origin:             UCP
ApJ Keywords:       Stars: Binaries: Eclipsing
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2008: The American Astronomical Society
DOI:                10.1086/527415
Bibliographic Code: 2008ApJ...673L..59P

Abstract

In a variability survey of M81 using the Large Binocular Telescope we have discovered a peculiar eclipsing binary (MV~-7.1) in the field of the dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX. It has a period of 271 days, and the light curve is well fit by an overcontact model in which both stars are overflowing their Roche lobes. It is composed of two yellow supergiants (V-I~=1 mag, Teff~=4800 K), rather than the far more common red or blue supergiants. Such systems must be rare. While we failed to find any similar systems in the literature, we did, however, note a second example. The SMC F0 supergiant R47 is a bright (MV~-7.5) periodic variable whose All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) light curve is well fit as a contact binary with a 181 day period. We propose that these systems are the progenitors of supernovae like SN 2004et and SN 2006ov, which appeared to have yellow progenitors. The binary interactions (mass transfer, mass loss) limit the size of the supergiant to give it a higher surface temperature than an isolated star at the same core evolutionary stage. We also discuss the possibility of this variable being a long-period Cepheid.

Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.



Title:              A Deep Large Binocular Telescope View of the Canes 
                    Venatici I Dwarf Galaxy
Authors:            Martin, Nicolas F.; Coleman, Matthew G.;
                    De Jong, Jelte T. A.; Rix, Hans-Walter;
                    Bell, Eric F.; Sand, David J.; Hill, John M.;
                    Thompson, David; Burwitz, Vadim;
                    Giallongo, Emanuele; Ragazzoni, Roberto;
                    Diolaiti, Emiliano; Gasparo, Federico;
                    Grazian, Andrea; Pedichini, Fernando; Bechtold, Jill
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, 
                    Germany; 
                    .), AB(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany; .), AC(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany; .), AD(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany; .), AE(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany; .), AF(Steward Observatory,!
  University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.; Chandra Fellow.), AG(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.), AH(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.), AI(Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany.), AJ(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monteporzio, Italy.), AK(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padova, Italy.), AL(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.), AM(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Trieste, Italy.), AN(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monteporzio, Italy.), AO(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monteporzio, Italy.), AP(Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.) 

Publication:        The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 672, Issue 1, pp. 
                    L13-L16. (ApJ Homepage)
Publication Date:   01/2008
Origin:             UCP
ApJ Keywords:       galaxies: individual (Canes Venatici I), Galaxies: 
                    Stellar Content, Galaxies: Local Group
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2008: The American Astronomical Society
DOI:                10.1086/525559
Bibliographic Code: 2008ApJ...672L..13M

Abstract

We present the first deep color-magnitude diagram of the Canes Venatici I (CVn I) dwarf galaxy from observations with the wide-field Large Binocular Camera on the Large Binocular Telescope. Reaching down to the main-sequence turnoff of the oldest stars, it reveals a dichotomy in the stellar populations of CVn I: it harbors an old (>~10 Gyr), metal-poor ([Fe/H]~-2.0), and spatially extended population along with a much younger (~1.4-2.0 Gyr), 0.5 dex more metal-rich, and spatially more concentrated population. These young stars are also offset by 64+40-20 pc to the east of the galaxy center. The data suggest that this young population, which represents ~3%-5% of the stellar mass of the galaxy within its half-light radius, should be identified with the kinematically cold stellar component found in a recent spectroscopic survey. CVn I therefore follows the behavior of the other remote MW dwarf spheroidals, which all contain intermediate-age and/or young populations: a complex star formation history is possible in extremely low mass galaxies.

Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; Ohio State University, and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Virginia.



Title:              Isopistonic angle for multi-aperture interferometers 
                    from isoplanatic angle
Authors:            Elhalkouj, T.; Ziad, A.; Petrov, R. G.;
                    Lazrek, M.; Elazhari, Y.; Benkhaldoun, Z.
Affiliation:        AA(Université Cady-Ayyad Faculté des sciences LPHEA, 
                    40000 Marrakech, Morocco 
                    ), AB(Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis UMR 6525, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, France), AC(Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis UMR 6525, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, France), AD(Université Cady-Ayyad Faculté des sciences LPHEA, 40000 Marrakech, Morocco), AE(École Normale Supérieure, route d'Essaouira, Laboratoire d'optique et optoélectronique, 4000 Marrakech, Morocco), AF(Université Cady-Ayyad Faculté des sciences LPHEA, 40000 Marrakech, Morocco) 

Publication:        Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 477, Issue 1, 
                    January I 2008, pp.337-344 (A&A Homepage)
Publication Date:   01/2008
Origin:             EDP
Keywords:           instrumentation: interferometers, atmospheric 
                    effects
DOI:                10.1051/0004-6361:20078173
Bibliographic Code: 2008A&A...477..337E

Abstract

Context: Extending the potential of multi-aperture telescopes toward the higher magnitudes necessary for extragalactic science needs an off-axis reference source to cophase the interferometric array. Aims: The off-axis reference star and the science source must be within the isopistonic angle, and evaluating this parameter is crucial for estimating the potential of long-baseline interferometers for faint sources, differential astrometry, and phase-reference imaging. Methods: We derived an analytical method of deducing the isopistonic angle from the standard atmospheric optical parameters, and used a full description of the atmospheric turbulence to validate numerical integrations. Results: We used the analytical expression for the isopistonic angle for predictions concerning the VLT, Keck, and LBT interferometers, as well as for an array of small apertures in the Antarctica site Dome C, indicating that is might be a unique site on earth for interferometric observations of faint sources.


Title:              Basic Concepts and Parameters of Astronomical AO 
                    Systems
Authors:            Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.
Affiliation:        AA(INAF $,1rs(B Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, L.go 
                    E. Fermi), AB(INAF $,1rs(B Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri, L.go E. Fermi)
Publication:        Jets from Young Stars II, Lecture Notes in Physics, 
                    Volume 742. ISBN 978-3-540-68031-4. Springer-Verlag 
                    Berlin Heidelberg, 2008, p. 45
Publication Date:   00/2008
Origin:             SPRINGER
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2008: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Bibliographic Code: 2008LNP...742...45E

Abstract

The paper describes the basic concepts and parameters of astronomical adaptive optic (AO) systems. In particular, the paper introduces and discusses the main parameters and error sources that determine the performances of an AO system. From this discussion, the current limitations of AO systems are derived. Following this, the laser-generated reference star method is described, being the best technique to solve the main limitation of Astronomical AO system, namely the limited sky coverage. Then advantages and disadvantages of such technique are given. Using the considered matter, the case of LBT, the first 8m class telescope using a deformable secondary mirror, is described. The LBT AO system performances in the single telescope case are briefly outlined. Then some concepts of optical interferometry are reported. They are used to analyze the definition of homothetic interferometer, the LBT case, and explain its differences from the Michelson stellar interferometer configuration. Finally a short description of the LBT interferometric instruments is given.


Title:              GRB080310, late-time photometry with LBT.
Authors:            Hill, J.; Ragazzoni, R.; Baruffolo, A.;
                    Garnavich, P.
Publication:        GRB Coordinates Network, Circular Service, 7523, 1 
                    (2008)
Publication Date:   00/2008
Origin:             SIMBAD
Bibliographic Code: 2008GCN..7523....1H

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              GRB080310, LBT and MDM photometry.
Authors:            Wegner, G.; Garnavich, P.; Prieto, J. L.;
                    Stanek, K. Z.
Publication:        GRB Coordinates Network, Circular Service, 7423, 1 
                    (2008)
Publication Date:   00/2008
Origin:             SIMBAD
Bibliographic Code: 2008GCN..7423....1W

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              GRB080310, optical observations with the LBT.
Authors:            Garnavich, P.; Prieto, J. L.; Pogge, R.
Publication:        GRB Coordinates Network, Circular Service, 7409, 1 
                    (2008)
Publication Date:   00/2008
Origin:             SIMBAD
Bibliographic Code: 2008GCN..7409....1G

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              GRB080310, optical observations with LBT.
Authors:            Garnavich, P.; Dame, N.; Prieto, J. L.; Pogge, R.
Publication:        GRB Coordinates Network, Circular Service, 7390, 1 
                    (2008)
Publication Date:   00/2008
Origin:             SIMBAD
Bibliographic Code: 2008GCN..7390....1G

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              Go Long, Go Deep: Finding Optical Jet Breaks for 
                    Swift-Era GRBs with the LBT
Authors:            Dai, X.; Garnavich, P. M.; Prieto, J. L.;
                    Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Bechtold, J.;
                    Bouche, N.; Buschkamp, P.; Diolaiti, E.;
                    Fan, X.; Giallongo, E.; Gredel, R.;
                    Hill, J. M.; Jiang, L.; McClellend, C.;
                    Milne, P.; Pedichini, F.; Pogge, R. W.;
                    Ragazzoni, R.; Rhoads, J.; Smareglia, R.;
                    Thompson, D.; Wagner, R. M.
Publication:        eprint arXiv:0712.2239
Publication Date:   12/2007
Origin:             ARXIV
Keywords:           Astrophysics
Comment:            submitted to ApJ Letters, 16 pages, 3 figures
Bibliographic Code: 2007arXiv0712.2239D

Abstract

Using the 8.4m Large Binocular Telescope, we observed six GRB afterglows from 2.8 hours to 30.8 days after the burst triggers to systematically probe the late time behaviors of afterglows including jet breaks, flares, and supernova bumps. We detected five afterglows with Sloan r' magnitudes ranging from 23.0--26.3 mag. The depth of our observations allows us to extend the temporal baseline for measuring jet breaks by another decade in time scale. We detected two jet breaks and a third candidate, all of which are not detectable without deep, late time optical observations. In the other three cases, we do not detect the jet breaks either because of contamination from the host galaxy light, the presence of a supernova bump, or the intrinsic faintness of the optical afterglow. This suggests that the basic picture that GRBs are collimated is still valid and that the apparent lack of Swift jet breaks is due to poorly sampled afterglow light curves, particularly at late times.


Title:              Comet 17P/Holmes
Authors:            Wagner, R. M.; Starrfield, S.; Schwarz, G.;
                    Larson, S.; Kaitchuck, R.; Childers, J.; Turner, G.
Publication:        IAU Circ., 8887, 2 (2007).  Edited by Green, D. W. 
                    E. (IAUC Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2007
Origin:             CBAT
Objects:            17P
Bibliographic Code: 2007IAUC.8887....2W

Abstract

IAUC 8887 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.


Title:              Observational Results from the 2007 March 18 Pluto 
                    Stellar Occultation
Authors:            Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.;
                    Souza, S. P.; McKay, A. J.; Person, M. J.;
                    Elliot, J. L.; Gulbis, A. A.; Zuluaga, C. A.;
                    Hill, J. M.; Ryan, E. V.; Ryan, W. H.
Affiliation:        AA(Williams College), AB(Williams College), 
                    AC(Williams College), AD(Williams College), AE(MIT), 
                    AF(MIT), AG(MIT), AH(MIT), AI(LBTO), AJ(Magdalena 
                    Ridge Obs), AK(Magdalena Ridge Obs)
Publication:        American Astronomical Society, DPS meeting #39, 
                    #62.03
Publication Date:   10/2007
Origin:             AAS
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2007: American Astronomical Society
Bibliographic Code: 2007DPS....39.6203P

Abstract

Our consortium observed the 5-minute occultation by Pluto of the star we call P445.3 (2UCAC 25823784, UCAC magnitude 15.3; McDonald and Elliot, 2000, AJ 120, 1599) from sites in the American southwest on 2007 March 17/18 (18 March, UT). Shadow velocity was 6.8 km/s. The 2007 occultation grazed the atmosphere. We were able to use one of the 8.4-m mirrors of the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, still in its engineering stage, though only with its facility guide camera and not with our Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit System (POETS) CCD/GPS/computer instruments (Souza et al., 2006, PASP 118, 1550). Because of the accurate GPS timing, we were able to align the light curve obtained, which included only the second half of the occultation, with results from other telescopes, including the visible, beamsplit light curve obtained by our group with the 6.5-m MMT (Person et al., 2007, this meeting). We also used, with POETS, the 2.4-m Magdalena Ridge Observatory near Socorro, New Mexico; a partial light curve was obtained despite variable cloudiness throughout the 80 min observation. The location of this telescope was the farthest into the occultation path, and thus led to the deepest incursion into Pluto's atmosphere of the starlight of the major telescopes we used. Light curves were generated by frame-by-frame synthetic-aperture photometry. The large increase in atmospheric pressure we had earlier measured at the 2002 occultation compared with measurements at the first successful Pluto occultation, in 1988, has ceased, as shown by both the 2006 and the current, 2007 measurements.

Acknowledgments: We thank Richard Green for granting Director's Discretionary time for the LBT observations. This work was partially funded by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNG05GG75G, NNG04GE48G, NNG04GF25G, and NNH04ZSS001N to Williams College and to MIT.



Title:              Observation Preparation and Support Software for 
                    LINC-NIRVANA
Authors:            Pavlov, A.; Berwein, J.; Gässler, W.; Briegel, F.
Publication:        Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVI 
                    ASP Conference Series, Vol. 376, proceedings of the 
                    conference held 15-18 October 2006 in Tucson, 
                    Arizona, USA. Edited by Richard A. Shaw, Frank Hill 
                    and David J. Bell., p.665
Publication Date:   10/2007
Origin:             ASP
Bibliographic Code: 2007ASPC..376..665P

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is a near-infrared imaging interferometer for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The fixed geometry of the telescope and the adaptive optics of the instrument put special constraints on the observation and scheduling process. The observation and support software, currently under development at MPIA, is a tool to support an observer in the complex process of preparing and scheduling the observations for LINC-NIRVANA. Our final goal is to create a coherent software that guides a scientific project through all stages of the LINC-NIRVANA observation program preparation to achieve high observation efficiency and scientific results with the instrument.


Title:              LINC-NIRVANA Instrument Control Software
Authors:            Kittmann, F.; Gässler, W.; Briegel, F.; Berwein, J.
Publication:        Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVI 
                    ASP Conference Series, Vol. 376, proceedings of the 
                    conference held 15-18 October 2006 in Tucson, 
                    Arizona, USA. Edited by Richard A. Shaw, Frank Hill 
                    and David J. Bell., p.661
Publication Date:   10/2007
Origin:             ASP
Bibliographic Code: 2007ASPC..376..661K

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA (LN) is a German-Italian beam combiner for the LBT. The instrument exploits its full capability by means of Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics and an IR Fringe and Flexure Tracker. Any of these systems must run stand alone with full supported user interaction. In addition they have to work together in a failure tolerant fashion. The commanding and synchronization of all systems is done by observation procedures based on Python scripts in the ICS. An alarm and notification system (Briegel et al. 2007) collects the status and feedback of each system non hierarchical and in parallel. We will present the software architecture and the operational flow of LN.


Title:              The Large Binocular Telescope: Really a Binocular 
                    Now
Authors:            Hill, J. M.
Publication:        Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVI 
                    ASP Conference Series, Vol. 376, proceedings of the 
                    conference held 15-18 October 2006 in Tucson, 
                    Arizona, USA. Edited by Richard A. Shaw, Frank Hill 
                    and David J. Bell., p.643
Publication Date:   10/2007
Origin:             ASP
Bibliographic Code: 2007ASPC..376..643H

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) uses two 8.4~m diameter primary mirrors mounted side-by-side to produce a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8~m circular aperture. A unique feature of LBT is that the light from the two primary mirrors can be combined to produce phased array imaging of an extended field. This coherent imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65~m telescope. First light with a single primary mirror and a prime focus imager was achieved in 2005 October. The second of two 8.4~m borosilicate honeycomb primary mirrors was installed in the telescope in 2005 October and was aluminized in 2006 January. Binocular operation with two prime focus cameras is planned for early 2007. The telescope will use two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. These adaptive mirrors are now being integrated with their electro-mechanics.


Title:              Lifecycle Management for SOA-Based Composite 
                    Applications
Authors:            Berwein, J.; Briegel, F.; Kittmann, F.;
                    Pavlov, A.; G"Assler, W.
Publication:        Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVI 
                    ASP Conference Series, Vol. 376, proceedings of the 
                    conference held 15-18 October 2006 in Tucson, 
                    Arizona, USA. Edited by Richard A. Shaw, Frank Hill 
                    and David J. Bell., p.535
Publication Date:   10/2007
Origin:             ASP
Bibliographic Code: 2007ASPC..376..535B

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is a Fizeau interferometer for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The instrument combines the two 8.4-m telescopes into one image plane. Due to the instrumental and operational complexity of LINC-NIRVANA, a software architecture is required that enables control, test and maintenance of individual instrument components. Therefore LINC-NIRVANA applied a composite application based on a service oriented architecture (SOA), which provides service distribution of stand-alone applications, within a heterogeneous environment. We present a software tool and the software architecture to manage the lifecycle of distributed services.


Title:              Logging and Exception Management for SOA-Based 
                    Composite Applications
Authors:            Briegel, F.; Berwein, J.; Kittmann, F.; Gässler, W.
Publication:        Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVI 
                    ASP Conference Series, Vol. 376, proceedings of the 
                    conference held 15-18 October 2006 in Tucson, 
                    Arizona, USA. Edited by Richard A. Shaw, Frank Hill 
                    and David J. Bell., p.377
Publication Date:   10/2007
Origin:             ASP
Bibliographic Code: 2007ASPC..376..377B

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is a Fizeau interferometer for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The instrument combines the two 8.4-m telescopes into one image plane. Due to the high instrumental and operational complexity of LINC-NIRVANA, a software architecture is required that enables controlling, testing and maintainance of individual instrument components (Briegel et al. 2006). Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an architectural approach to building composite applications from reusable services. A composite application consists of functionality drawn from several different sources within an SOA. The problem is trouble-shooting composite applications. For efficient troubleshooting, operators need an end-to-end, cross-platform logging and exception handling system where the logging and exception information of every unit can be retrieved, displayed and handled.


Title:              WiBSI: A Wide-Bandwidth Sub-millimeter 
                    Interferometer for the LBT
Authors:            Bussmann, R. S.; Drouet D'Aubigny, C. Y.;
                    Walker, C. K.
Publication:        From Z-Machines to ALMA: (Sub)Millimeter 
                    Spectroscopy of Galaxies ASP Conference Series, Vol. 
                    375, proceedings of the conference held 12-14 
                    January, 2006 at the North American ALMA Science 
                    Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 
                    Charlottesville, Virginia, United States. Edited by 
                    Andrew J. Baker, Jason Glenn, Andrew I. Harris, 
                    Jeffrey G. Mangum and Min S. Yun., p.221
Publication Date:   10/2007
Origin:             ASP
Bibliographic Code: 2007ASPC..375..221B

Abstract

We describe a unique 350 $,1'<(Bm beam combiner designed for use on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) on Mt. Graham that can be used with either coherent or incoherent detectors. The LBT consists of two 8.4 m optical quality primary mirrors on a common azimuth-elevation mount with a center-to-center distance between the primaries of 14.4 m, allowing angular resolution of 2 arcsec × 6 arcsec at 350 $,1'<(Bm. Unlike the case of traditional radio interferometers, here the beams are combined quasi-optically without the need for a digital correlator. Therefore, the instantaneous bandwidth is limited only by the capabilities of the detector.


Title:              The Elongated Structure of the Hercules Dwarf 
                    Spheroidal Galaxy from Deep Large Binocular 
                    Telescope Imaging
Authors:            Coleman, Matthew G.; de Jong, Jelte T. A.;
                    Martin, Nicolas F.; Rix, Hans-Walter;
                    Sand, David J.; Bell, Eric F.;
                    Pogge, Richard W.; Thompson, David J.;
                    Hippelein, H.; Giallongo, E.; Ragazzoni, R.;
                    DiPaola, Andrea; Farinato, Jacopo;
                    Smareglia, Riccardo; Testa, Vincenzo;
                    Bechtold, Jill; Hill, John M.;
                    Garnavich, Peter M.; Green, Richard F.
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 
                    17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.), 
                    AB(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 
                    17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.), 
                    AC(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 
                    17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.), 
                    AD(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 
                    17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.), AE(Steward 
                    Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 
                    85721.; Chandra Fellow.), AF(Max-Planck-Institut für 
                    Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, 
                    Germany.), AG(Department of Astronomy, Ohio State 
                    University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 
                    43210-1173.), AH(Large Binocular Telescope 
                    Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry 
                    Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065.), 
                    AI(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 
                    17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.), AJ(INAF, 
                    Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 
                    I-00040 Monteporzio, Italy.), AK(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 
                    Monteporzio, Italy.), AL(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 
                    Monteporzio, Italy.), AM(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell'Osservatorio, 5, 
                    35122 Padova, Italy.), AN(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo, 11, 34131 
                    Trieste, Italy.), AO(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico 
                    di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio, 
                    Italy.), AP(Steward Observatory, University of 
                    Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721.), AQ(Large Binocular 
                    Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 
                    North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065.), 
                    AR(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 
                    Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138.), AS(Large 
                    Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of 
                    Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 
                    85721-0065.)
Publication:        The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 668, Issue 1, pp. 
                    L43-L46. (ApJ Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2007
Origin:             UCP
ApJ Keywords:       galaxies: individual (Hercules dwarf spheroidal 
                    galaxy), Galaxies: Kinematics and Dynamics
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2007: The American Astronomical Society
DOI:                10.1086/522672
Bibliographic Code: 2007ApJ...668L..43C

Abstract

We present a deep, wide-field photometric survey of the newly discovered Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph), based on data from the Large Binocular Telescope. Images in B, V, and r were obtained with the Large Binocular Camera covering a 23'×23' field of view to a magnitude of ~25.5 (5 $,1'C(B). This permitted the construction of color-magnitude diagrams that reach approximately 1.5 mag below the Hercules main-sequence turnoff. Three-filter photometry allowed us to preferentially select probable Hercules member stars and to examine the structure of this system at a previously unattained level. We find that the Hercules dwarf is highly elongated (3:1), considerably more so than any other dSph satellite of the Milky Way, except the disrupting Sagittarius dwarf. Although we cannot rule out that the unusual structure is intrinsic to Hercules as an equilibrium system, our results suggest tidal disruption as a likely cause of this highly elliptical structure. Given the relatively large galactocentric distance of this system (132+/-12 kpc), signs of tidal disruption would require the Hercules dwarf to be on a highly eccentric orbit around the Milky Way.

Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the US, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona, on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; Ohio State University; and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Virginia.



Title:              Advances in the reconstruction of LBT LINC-NIRVANA 
                    images
Authors:            La Camera, A.; Desiderá, G.; Arcidiacono, C.;
                    Boccacci, P.; Bertero, M.
Affiliation:        AA(INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Lgo. 
                    E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy 
                    ), AB(DISI, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy), AC(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy), AD(DISI, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy), AE(DISI, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy) 

Publication:        Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 471, Issue 3, 
                    September I 2007, pp.1091-1097 (A&A Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2007
Origin:             EDP
Keywords:           techniques: interferometric, thechniques: image 
                    processing, methods: data analysis, methods: 
                    numercial
DOI:                10.1051/0004-6361:20077380
Bibliographic Code: 2007A&A...471.1091L

Abstract

Context: LINC-NIRVANA, the Fizeau interferometer of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), will require routine use of image reconstruction methods for data reduction. To this purpose our group has already developed the software package AIRY (Astronomical Image Restoration in interferometrY). Aims: Observations of a target, with different orientations of the baseline of LINC-NIRVANA, will provide images with different orientations with respect to the CCD camera. This rotation effect was not taken into account in our previous work. Therefore in this paper we propose a method able to compensate for the rotation of the field of view. Moreover we investigate acceleration techniques for reducing the computational burden of multiple image deconvolution. Methods: The basic method is a suitable modification of the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, also implementing an approach we proposed for reducing boundary effects. Acceleration techniques, proposed by Biggs & Andrews, are extended and applied to this new algorithm. Finally a method for estimating the unknown point spread function (PSF) by extracting and extrapolating the image of a reference star is developed and implemented. Results: The method introduced for compensating object rotation and reducing boundary effects, as well as its accelerated versions, are tested on simulated LINC-NIRVANA images, using the VLT image of the Crab Nebula as test object. The results are very promising. Moreover the method for PSFs extraction is tested on simulated images, derived from the LBT image of the galaxy NGC 6946 and obtained by convolving this image with PSFs computed by means of the numerical code LOST (Layer Oriented Simulation Tool).


Title:              First Results From the Large Binocular Telescope: 
                    Deep Photometry of New dSphs
Authors:            Coleman, Matthew G.; de Jong, Jelte
Publication:        eprint arXiv:0708.2612
Publication Date:   08/2007
Origin:             ARXIV
Keywords:           Astrophysics
Comment:            Four pages, two figures. To appear in the 
                    proceedings of "Galaxies in the Local Volume", 
                    Astrophysics and Space Science, editors B. 
                    Koribalski and H. Jerjen
Bibliographic Code: 2007arXiv0708.2612C

Abstract

This contribution describes photometry for two Galactic dSphs obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope to a magnitude of ~25.5. Using the Large Binocular Camera, a purpose-built wide-field imager for the LBT, we have examined the structure and star formation histories of two newly-discovered Local Group members, the Hercules dSph and the Leo T dSph/dIrr system. We have constructed a structural map for the Hercules system using three-filter photometry to V ~ 25.5. This is the first deep photometry for this system, and it indicates that Hercules is unusually elongated, possibly indicating distortion due to the Galactic tidal field. We have also derived the first star formation history for the Leo T system, and find that its oldest population of stars (age ~ 13 Gyr) were relatively metal-rich, with [Fe/H] ~ -1.5.


Title:              The Large Binocular Camera at LBT
Authors:            Giallongo, E.
Publication:        Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol.328, Issue 7, July, 
                    2007. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 
                    Weinheim, Germany, 2007, p.630 (AN Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2007
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2007AN....328Q.630G

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              The Laser Guide Star Facility for the LBT
Authors:            Rabien, S.
Publication:        Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol.328, Issue 7, July, 
                    2007. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 
                    Weinheim, Germany, 2007, p.631 (AN Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2007
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2007AN....328..631R

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              SERPIL/LINUS: a design study for a Near-Infrared 
                    Interferometric Integral Field Spectrometer for the 
                    LBT
Authors:            Mueller Sanchez, F.; Gal, C.; Eisenhauer, F.;
                    Krabbe, A.; Herbst, T.
Publication:        Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol.328, Issue 7, July, 
                    2007. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 
                    Weinheim, Germany, 2007, p.628 (AN Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2007
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2007AN....328..628M

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              Feedback in galaxy cores: a LBT Key Science Project 
                    proposal
Authors:            Bomans, D.
Publication:        Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol.328, Issue 7, July, 
                    2007. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 
                    Weinheim, Germany, 2007, p.628 (AN Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2007
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2007AN....328..628B

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              LUCIFER: a NIR Spectrograph and Imager for the LBT
Authors:            Mandel, Holger; Seifert, Walter;
                    Lenzen, Rainer; Hofmann, Reiner; Jütte, Marcus;
                    Weiser, Peter; Appenzeller, Immo;
                    Bomans, Dominik; Buschkamp, Peter;
                    Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Feiz, Carmen;
                    Gemperlein, Hans; Germeroth, André;
                    Grimm, Bernhard; Heidt, Jochen;
                    Knierim, Volker; Laun, Werner;
                    Lehmitz, Michael; Luks, Thomas; Mall, Ulrich;
                    Polsterer, Peter Müller Kai; Schimmelmann, Jan;
                    Weisz, Harald; Quirrenbach, Andreas
Publication:        Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol.328, Issue 7, July, 
                    2007. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 
                    Weinheim, Germany, 2007, p.626 (AN Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2007
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2007AN....328..626M

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              LMIRCam 3-5 micron Imager for the LBT Combined Focus
Authors:            Wilson, J. C.; Hinz, P.; Kenworthy, M.;
                    Skrutskie, M.; Jones, T. J.; Nelson, M.;
                    Woodward, C. E.; Garnavich, P.
Publication:        Proceedings of the conference In the Spirit of 
                    Bernard Lyot:  The Direct Detection of Planets and 
                    Circumstellar Disks in the 21st Century. June 04 - 
                    08, 2007.  University of California, Berkeley, CA, 
                    USA.  Edited by Paul Kalas.
Publication Date:   06/2007
Origin:             AUTHOR
Bibliographic Code: 2007lyot.confE..51W

Abstract

LMIRCam is a 3-5 micron Fizeau imaging channel for use at the combined focus of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). LMIRCam is being developed by the University of Virginia, University of Minnesota, Notre Dame and the University of Arizona. It will reside within the 10 micron Nulling Interferometric Camera (NIC). We present this instrument's predicted science capabilities, instrument design, and its potential use as a test bed for complex coronographic methods.


Title:              The Elongated Structure of the Hercules dSph from 
                    Deep LBT Imaging
Authors:            Coleman, Matthew G.; De Jong, Jelte T. A.;
                    Martin, Nicolas F.; Rix, Hans-Walter;
                    Sand, David J.; Bell, Eric F.;
                    Pogge, Richard W.; Thompson, David J.;
                    Hippelein, H.; Giallongo, E.; Ragazzoni, R.;
                    DiPaola, Andrea; Farinato, Jacopo;
                    Smareglia, Riccardo; Testa, Vincenzo;
                    Bechtold, Jill; Hill, John M.;
                    Garnavich, Peter M.; Green, Richard F.
Publication:        eprint arXiv:0706.1669
Publication Date:   06/2007
Origin:             ARXIV
Keywords:           Astrophysics
Comment:            Submitted to ApJ (Letters). 5 pages, 3 figures
Bibliographic Code: 2007arXiv0706.1669C

Abstract

We present a deep, wide-field photometric survey of the newly-discovered Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy, based on data from the Large Binocular Telescope. Images in B, V and r were obtained with the Large Binocular Camera covering a 23' times 23' field of view to a magnitude of ~25.5 (5 sigma). This permitted the construction of colour-magnitude diagrams that reach approximately 1.5 magnitudes below the Hercules main sequence turnoff. Three-filter photometry allowed us to preferentially select probable Hercules member stars, and examine the structure of this system at a previously unattained level. We find that the Hercules dwarf is highly elongated (3:1), considerably more so than any other dSph satellite of the Milky Way except the disrupting Sagittarius dwarf. While we cannot rule out that the unusual structure is intrinsic to Hercules as an equilibrium system, our results suggest tidal disruption as a likely cause of this highly elliptical structure. Given the relatively large Galactocentric distance of this system (132 +/- 12 kpc), signs of tidal disruption would require the Hercules dwarf to be on a highly eccentric orbit around the Milky Way.


Title:              Signatures of Planets in Debris Disks
Authors:            Moro-Martin, Amaya; Malhotra, Renu; Wolf, Sebastian
Publication:        Workshop on Dust in Planetary Systems (ESA SP-643). 
                    September 26-30 2005, Kauai, Hawaii. Editors: 
                    Krueger, H. and Graps, A., p.113-122
Publication Date:   01/2007
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2007ESASP.643..113M

Abstract

Main sequence stars are commonly surrounded by debris disks, formed by cold far-IR-emitting dust that is thought to be continuously replenished by a reservoir of undetected dust-producing planetesimals. In a planetary system with a belt of planetesimals (like the Solar System's Kuiper Belt) and one or more interior giant planets, as the particles spiral inward due to Poynting-Robertson (PR) drag they can get trapped in the mean motion resonances (MMRs) with the planets. This process can create structure in the dust disk, as the particles accumulate at certain semimajor axes. Sufficiently massive planets may also scatter and eject dust particles out of a planetary system, creating a dust depleted region inside the orbit of the planet, a feature that is common in most of the spatially debris disks observed so far. We have studied the efficiency of particle ejection and the resulting dust density contrast inside and outside the orbit of the planet, as a function of the planet's mass and orbital elements and the particle size.Because the debris disk structure is sensitive to long period planets, complementing a parameter space not covered by radial velocity and transit surveys, its study can help us learn about the diversity of planetary systems. Presently, the Spitzer Space Telescope is carrying out observations of debris disks most of which are spatially unresolved. It is interesting therefore to study how the structure carved by planets affects the shape of the disk's Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), and consequently if the SED can be used to infer the presence of planets. We have numerically calculated the 3-D equilibrium spatial density distributions of dust disks originated by a belt of planetesimals similar to the Kuiper Belt (KB) in the presence of interior giant planets in different planetary configurations (with planet masses ranging from 1-10 MJup in circular orbits with semimajor axis between 1--30 AU). For each of these systems we calculate its SED for a representative sample of chemical compositions. We discuss what types of planetary systems can be distinguishable from one another and the main parameter degeneracies in the model SEDs. We find that the SEDs are degenerated, and therefore to unambiguously constrain the planet location we need to obtain high resolution images able to spatially resolve the disk. In the future, observatories like ALMA, LBT, SAFIR, TPF and JWST will be able to image the dust in planetary systems analogous to our own.


Title:              Technological developments at the LBT: the prime 
                    focus camera.
Authors:            Di Paola, A.; Pedichini, F.; Speziali, R.;
                    Baruffolo, A.; Diolaiti, E.; Farinato, J.;
                    Gallozzi, S.; Gentile, G.; Giallongo, E.;
                    Ragazzoni, R.; Vernet, E.
Affiliation:        AA( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte 
                    Porzio Catone, Italy), AB( Istituto Nazionale di 
                    Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via 
                    Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy), 
                    AC( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte 
                    Porzio Catone, Italy), AD(Istituto Nazionale di 
                    Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, 
                    Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-32122 Padova, Italy), 
                    AE(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 
                    Bologna, Italy), AF(Istituto Nazionale di 
                    Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, 
                    Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-32122 Padova, Italy), 
                    AG( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte 
                    Porzio Catone, Italy), AH(Istituto Nazionale di 
                    Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, 
                    Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-32122 Padova, Italy), 
                    AI( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte 
                    Porzio Catone, Italy), AJ(Istituto Nazionale di 
                    Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, 
                    Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-32122 Padova, Italy), 
                    AK(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 
                    I-32122 Padova, Italy)
Publication:        Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana, v.78, 
                    p.704 (2007)
Publication Date:   00/2007
Origin:             MmSAI
Keywords:           LBC, camera, LBT, prime focus, CCD, controllers, LN2 
                    cryostat, control software
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2007: SAIt
Bibliographic Code: 2007MmSAI..78..704D

Abstract

This paper show the technological solutions adopted to build the blue (U and B bands) and red (V, R, I and Z bands) of the prime focus imagers at the LBT. We specially described the functional caracteristics and performances of the cryogenic and CCD control systems and the instrument management system.


Title:              GRB 070419A, deep LBT photometry and possible 
                    supernova detection.
Authors:            Hill, J.; Garnavich, P.; Kuhn, O.;
                    Bouche, N.; Buschkamp, P.; Fan, X.; Dai, X.;
                    Prieto, J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Milne, P.;
                    Bechtold, J.; Wagner, R. M.; Rhoads, J.
Publication:        GRB Coordinates Network, Circular Service, 6486, 1 
                    (2007)
Publication Date:   00/2007
Origin:             SIMBAD
Bibliographic Code: 2007GCN..6486....1H

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              GRB 070518, deep LBT photometry.
Authors:            Garnavich, P.; Dame, N.; Bouche, N.;
                    Buschkamp, P.; Kuhn, O.; Fan, X.; Dai, X.;
                    Prieto, J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Hill, J.;
                    Bechtold, J.; Kern, J.; Wagner, R. M.; Rhoads, J.
Publication:        GRB Coordinates Network, Circular Service, 6462, 1 
                    (2007)
Publication Date:   00/2007
Origin:             SIMBAD
Bibliographic Code: 2007GCN..6462....1G

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              GRB 070419A, deep LBT photometry.
Authors:            Garnavich, P.; Fan, X.; Dai, X.; Prieto, J.;
                    Stanek, K. Z.; Hill, J.; Bechtold, J.;
                    Wagner, R. M.; Rhoads, J.
Publication:        GRB Coordinates Network, Circular Service, 6406, 1 
                    (2007)
Publication Date:   00/2007
Origin:             SIMBAD
Bibliographic Code: 2007GCN..6406....1G

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              GRB 070412, deep LBT imaging.
Authors:            Prieto, J.; Garnavich, P.; Hill, J.; Fan, X.;
                    Harris, J.; Bechtold, J.; Dai, X.;
                    Martini, P.; Stanek, K. Z.; Wagner, R. M.;
                    Rhoads, J.; Pian, E.
Publication:        GRB Coordinates Network, Circular Service, 6374, 1 
                    (2007)
Publication Date:   00/2007
Origin:             SIMBAD
Bibliographic Code: 2007GCN..6374....1P

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              GRB 070411, further deep LBT photometry.
Authors:            Garnavich, P.; Prieto, J.; Hill, J.; Fan, X.;
                    Dai, X.; Stanek, K. Z.; Wagner, R. M.;
                    Rhoads, J.; Bechtold, J.; Gredel, R.; Grazian, A.
Publication:        GRB Coordinates Network, Circular Service, 6351, 1 
                    (2007)
Publication Date:   00/2007
Origin:             SIMBAD
Bibliographic Code: 2007GCN..6351....1G

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              GRB 070411, deep LBT photometry.
Authors:            Prieto, J.; Garnavich, P.; Hill, J.; Fan, X.;
                    Harris, J.; Dai, X.; Martini, P.;
                    Stanek, K. Z.; Wagner, R. M.; Rhoads, J.;
                    Herbert-Fort, S.
Publication:        GRB Coordinates Network, Circular Service, 6346, 1 
                    (2007)
Publication Date:   00/2007
Origin:             SIMBAD
Bibliographic Code: 2007GCN..6346....1P

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              Fizeau Interferometry with the LBT Astronomy on the 
                    Way to ELTs
Authors:            Gaessler, W.; Herbst, T. M.; Ragazzoni, R.;
                    Eckart, A.; Weigelt, G.; The Linc-Nirvana Team
Publication:        Exploring the Cosmic Frontier: Astrophysical 
                    Instruments for the 21st Century. ESO Astrophysics 
                    Symposia, European Southern Observatory series. 
                    Edited by Andrei P. Lobanov, J. Anton Zensus, 
                    Catherine Cesarsky and Phillip J. Diamond. Series 
                    editor: Bruno Leibundgut, ESO. ISBN 
                    978-3-540-39755-7. Published by Springer-Verlag, 
                    Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany, 2007, p.55
Publication Date:   00/2007
Origin:             SPRINGER; ADS
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2007: Springer
Bibliographic Code: 2007ecf..book...55G

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              Deconvolution of multiple images with high dynamic 
                    range and an application to LBT LINC-NIRVANA
Authors:            Anconelli, B.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.;
                    Desiderà, G.; Carbillet, M.; Lanteri, H.
Affiliation:        AA(DISI, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, 
                    16146 Genova, Italy 
                    ), AB(DISI, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy), AC(DISI, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy), AD(DISI, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy), AE(Laboratoire Universitaire d'Astrophysique de Nice, UMR 6525, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 02, France), AF(Laboratoire Universitaire d'Astrophysique de Nice, UMR 6525, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 02, France) 

Publication:        Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 460, Issue 1, 
                    December II 2006, pp.349-355 (A&A Homepage)
Publication Date:   12/2006
Origin:             EDP
Keywords:           methods: numerical, techniques: image processing
DOI:                10.1051/0004-6361:20065836
Bibliographic Code: 2006A&A...460..349A

Abstract

Context: .The standard Richardson-Lucy method (RLM) does not work well in the deconvolution of astronomical images containing objects with very different angular scales and magnitudes. Therefore, modifications of RLM, applicable to this kind of objects, must be investigated.
Aims: .We recently proposed a regularization of RLM which provides satisfactory results in the case of particular test objects with high dynamic range. In this paper we extend this method to the case of multiple image deconvolution, having in mind application to the reconstruction of the images provided by Fizeau interferometers such as LINC-NIRVANA, the German-Italian beam combiner for the Large Binocular Telescope.
Methods: .RLM is an iterative method for the minimization of the Csiszár divergence, a problem equivalent to maximum likelihood estimation in the case of photon noise. In our approach, the problem is regularized by adding a suitable penalization term to the Csiszár divergence and an iterative method converging to the minimum of the resulting functional is derived from the so-called split gradient method (SGM).
Results: .The method is tested on a model of young binary star consisting of a core binary surrounded by a dusty circumbinary ring. The results are quite good in the case of exact knowledge of the point spread functions (PSF). However, in the case of approximate knowledge of the PSFs, the accuracy of the reconstruction depends on the difference of magnitude between the ring and the central binary.



Title:              Status and Plans for the Large Binocular Telescope
Authors:            Green, R. F.
Affiliation:        AA(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, Tucson, 
                    United States)
Publication:        Astronomical Facilities of the Next Decade, 26th 
                    meeting of the IAU, Special Session 1, 16-17 August, 
                    2006 in Prague, Czech Republic, SPS1, #23
Publication Date:   08/2006
Origin:             IAU
Bibliographic Code: 2006IAUSS...1E..23G

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is in commissioning, with the initiation of science operations planned for 2007. The telescope contains two 8.4-m diameter borosilicate honeycomb primary mirrors, supported actively to control bending modes. The secondary mirrors will provide adaptive optics correction through rapid modulation of the surface of a Zerodur face sheet 91 cm in diameter and 1.5 mm thick. The initial complement of facility instruments comprises capabilities used in pairs on common fields of view. The Large Binocular Cameras are wide-field 36 Mpix mosaics at prime focus optimized for blue and for red performance. The Multi-Object Double Spectrographs will be fed at straight-through Gregorian foci through custom cut focal plane masks. The ambitious LUCIFER near-IR spectrographs at bent Gregorian will have exchangeable cold focal plan masks. Ultimately, two instruments will combine the two beams through Fizeau interferometry. One, LBTI, is optimized for mid-IR, and will have a nulling capability for coronagraphic work. The other, LINC-NIRVANA, will employ three levels of adaptive correction to achieve interferometric resolution down to 1 micron. The 23-m tip-to-tip dimension affords resolution as good as 10 mas. LBTO is supported by a consortium of institutions from Arizona, Italy, Germany, and the U.S. It is truly an international project and the first of the next generation of large ground-based telescopes.


Title:              V723 Cassiopeiae
Authors:            Ness, J.-U.; Starrfield, S.; Schwarz, G.;
                    Vanlandingham, K.; Wagner, R. M.; Lyke, J.;
                    Woodward, C. E.; Lynch, D. K.; Krautter, J.;
                    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.
Publication:        Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams, 598, 1 (2006).  
                    Edited by Green, D. W. E.
Publication Date:   08/2006
Origin:             CBAT
Objects:            V723 Cas
Bibliographic Code: 2006CBET..598....1N

Abstract

CBET 598 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.


Title:              The Large Binocular Telescope mount control system 
                    architecture
Authors:            Ashby, David S.; McKenna, Dan;
                    Brynnel, Joar G.; Sargent, Tom; Cox, Dan;
                    Little, John; Powell, Keith; Holmberg, Gene
Affiliation:        AA(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA)), AB(Steward Observatory, Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA)), AC(Large Binocular Telescope 
                    Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), AD(Steward 
                    Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), AE(Steward 
                    Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), AF(Large 
                    Binocular Telescope Observatory, Univ. of Arizona 
                    (USA)), AG(Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona 
                    (USA)), AH(Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona 
                    (USA))
Publication:        Advanced Software and Control for Astronomy.  Edited 
                    by Lewis, Hilton; Bridger, Alan.  Proceedings of the 
                    SPIE, Volume 6274, pp. 627423 (2006). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671983
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6274E..66A

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) features dual 8.4 m diameter mirrors in a common elevation-over-azimuth mount. The LBT moves in elevation on two large crescent-shaped C-rings that are supported by radial hydrostatic bearing pads located near the four corners of the rectangular azimuth frame. The azimuth frame, in turn, is supported by four hydrostatic bearing pads and uses hydrodynamic roller bearings for centering. Each axis is gear driven by four large electric motors. In addition to precision optical motor encoders, each axis is equipped with Farrand Inductosyn strip encoders which yield 0.005 arcsecond resolution. The telescope weighs 580 metric tons and is designed to track with 0.03 arcsecond or better servo precision under wind speeds as high as 24 km/hr. Though the telescope is still under construction, the Mount Control System (MCS) has been routinely exercised to achieve First Light. The authors present a description of the unique, DSP-based synchronous architecture of the MCS and its capabilities.


Title:              The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracker: piston 
                    control strategies
Authors:            Rost, Steffen; Bertram, Thomas;
                    Straubmeier, Christian; Wang, Yeping;
                    Eckart, Andreas
Affiliation:        AA(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AB(Univ. of Cologne 
                    (Germany)), AC(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AD(Univ. 
                    of Cologne (Germany)), AE(Univ. of Cologne 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Advanced Software and Control for Astronomy.  Edited 
                    by Lewis, Hilton; Bridger, Alan.  Proceedings of the 
                    SPIE, Volume 6274, pp. 62741P (2006). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671741
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6274E..53R

Abstract

The Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS) is designed to correct the atmospheric piston variations and the instrumental flexure during the NIR interferometric image acquisition of the LINC-NIRVANA camera at the LBT. The interferometric image quality depends on the performance of these corrections. Differential piston and flexure effects will be detected and corrected in a real-time closed loop by analyzing the PSF of a guide star at a frequency of up to several hundred Hz. A dedicated piston mirror will then be moved in a corresponding manner by a piezo actuator. The FFTS is expected to provide a residual piston of better then 0.1 $,1';(B at the central wavelength of the science band. Thus, the required correction bandwidth is 10-20 Hz as differential piston simulations of different seeing conditions indicate. Therefore, a sampling frequency of 100-200 Hz is required to correct OPD variations. The upper limit for the loop frequency is the resonance frequency of the mirror and the response function respectively. The piston mirror as the actuator and the FFTS detector as the sensor feedback are embedded in a very complex system. Many control loop aspects like sampling frequencies, delays, controller algorithm and control bandwidth have to be identified. With accurate simulations of the system the limits of atmospheric and instrumental conditions for reliable closed loops can be determined against the respective control parameters. We present strategies for the closed-loop control of the piston correction which are suitable to achieve the 0.1 $,1';(B requirement and the optimal overall imaging performance with a sufficient "all-purpose" control stability.


Title:              The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracker: Linux 
                    real-time solutions
Authors:            Wang, Yeping; Bertram, Thomas;
                    Straubmeier, Christian; Rost, Steffen;
                    Eckart, Andreas
Affiliation:        AA(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AB(Univ. of Cologne 
                    (Germany)), AC(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AD(Univ. 
                    of Cologne (Germany)), AE(Univ. of Cologne 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Advanced Software and Control for Astronomy.  Edited 
                    by Lewis, Hilton; Bridger, Alan.  Proceedings of the 
                    SPIE, Volume 6274, pp. 62741O (2006). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671616
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6274E..52W

Abstract

The correction of atmospheric differential piston and instrumental flexure effects is mandatory for optimum interferometric performance of the LBT NIR interferometric imaging camera LINC-NIRVANA. The task of the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS) is to detect and correct these effects in a real-time closed loop. On a timescale of milliseconds, image data of the order of 4K bytes has to be retrieved from the FFTS detector, analyzed, and the results have to be sent to the control system. The need for a reliable communication between several processes within a confined period of time calls for solutions with good real-time performance. We investigated two soft real-time options for the Linux platform. The design we present takes advantage of several features that follow the POSIX standard with improved real-time performance, which were implemented in the new Linux kernel (2.6.12). Several concepts, such as synchronization, shared memory, and preemptive scheduling are considered and the performance of the most time-critical parts of the FFTS software is tested.


Title:              The LINC-NIRVANA Common Software
Authors:            Briegel, Florian; Berwein, Jürgen;
                    Kittmann, Frank; Volchkov, Valentin;
                    Mohr, Lars; Gaessler, Wolfgang;
                    Bertram, Thomas; Rost, Steffen; Wang, Yeping
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), 
                    AB(Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), 
                    AC(Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), 
                    AD(Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), 
                    AE(Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), 
                    AF(Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), 
                    AG(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AH(Univ. of Cologne 
                    (Germany)), AI(Univ. of Cologne (Germany))
Publication:        Advanced Software and Control for Astronomy.  Edited 
                    by Lewis, Hilton; Bridger, Alan.  Proceedings of the 
                    SPIE, Volume 6274, pp. 62741M (2006). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671373
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6274E..50B

Abstract

The MPIA is leading an international consortium of institutes in building an instrument called LINC-NIRVANA, the LBT INterferometric Camera and Near-IR / Visible Adaptive INterferometer for Astronomy. LINC-NIRVANA is a Fizeau interferometer for the Large Binocular Telescope doing imaging in the near infrared (J, H, K - band). Multi-conjugated adaptive objects is used to increase sky coverage and to get diffraction limited images over a 2 arcminute field of view. The LN Common Software provides a software infrastructure common to all partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns in control systems and of services, which implement those patterns. The heart of LCSW is an object model of controlled devices, implemented as ICE network objects. A code generator creates application from templates for these network objects.


Title:              Lucifer VR: a virtual instrument for the LBT
Authors:            Polsterer, Kai L.; Jütte, Marcus;
                    Knierim, Volker; Lehmitz, Michael; Mandel, Holger
Affiliation:        AA(Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)), AB(Ruhr-Univ. 
                    Bochum (Germany)), AC(Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)), 
                    AD(Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AE(Landessternwarte Heidelberg (Germany))
Publication:        Advanced Software and Control for Astronomy.  Edited 
                    by Lewis, Hilton; Bridger, Alan.  Proceedings of the 
                    SPIE, Volume 6274, pp. 62740M (2006). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671279
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6274E..19P

Abstract

Lucifer VR is a virtually realized instrument that was build in order to allow improved pre-integration software tests, training of observers as well as providing educational access. Beside testing the instrument hardware in combination with e.g. a telescope simulator, software tests need to be done. A virtual instrument closes the gap between regression tests and testing the control software with the integrated instrument. Lucifer VR allows much earlier tests and reduces the amount of time needed to combine the software with the hardware. By modeling the instrument in a simulator, motion times can be calculated very easily and the position of all instrument units can be traced. Especially when using complex mechanisms like a MOS unit a virtual instrument makes software development less time consuming. Lucifer VR consists of three parts; one for handling the communication, another to simulate the hardware and finally a part to visualize the whole instrument in three dimensions.


Title:              CFRP structure for the LBT instrument LINC-NIRVANA
Authors:            Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Münch, Norbert;
                    Böhm, Armin; Schlossmacher, Wolfram;
                    Schöppinger, Carsten; Neugeboren, Hartmut;
                    Wittke, Henrik; Wichmann, Henning
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AB(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AC(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AD(Ingenieurbüro Schlossmacher (Germany)), AE(INVENT 
                    GmbH (Germany)), AF(INVENT GmbH (Germany)), 
                    AG(INVENT GmbH (Germany)), AH(INVENT GmbH (Germany))
Publication:        Optomechanical Technologies for Astronomy.  Edited 
                    by Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Antebi, Joseph; Lemke, 
                    Dietrich.  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6273, pp. 
                    62730Z (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671314
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6273E..30R

Abstract

This paper describes the development of a Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) structure for the interferometric instrument LINC-NIRVANA (LN) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Arizona, USA. This structure carries all components between the two "bent" Gregorian foci of the individual telescopes necessary to combine the light of the two arms coherently. Especially developed for aerospace and defence, CFRP materials now find widespread use across a number of other applications where their special properties are beneficial. We will profit in LN from the good rigidity, high strength, low thermal expansion, low mass and high damping properties of CFRP. An extended Finite Element Analysis was performed to simulate the properties of the structure for different telescope positions and different temperatures. We built a 560 mm x 550 mm x 385 mm test piece of the LN optical bench for flexure tests to confirm the results of the Finite Element Analysis. The complete LN instrument with a mass of 7.5 tons will be mounted at a tilting unit to simulate the different telescope positions.


Title:              The aluminizing system for the 8.4 meter diameter 
                    LBT primary mirrors
Authors:            Atwood, Bruce; Pappalardo, Daniel;
                    O'Brien, Thomas; Hill, John M.; Mason, Jerry;
                    Belville, Ralph; Steinbrecher, David;
                    Brewer, David; Teiga, Ed; Sabol, Barry;
                    Howard, James; Miglietta, L.
Affiliation:        AA(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), AB(The Ohio State 
                    Univ. (USA)), AC(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), AD(LBT 
                    Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), AE(The Ohio 
                    State Univ. (USA)), AF(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), 
                    AG(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), AH(The Ohio State 
                    Univ. (USA)), AI(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), AJ(New 
                    Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (USA)), 
                    AK(LBT Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AL(Osservatorio Astrofisico d'Arcetri (Italy))
Publication:        Optomechanical Technologies for Astronomy.  Edited 
                    by Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Antebi, Joseph; Lemke, 
                    Dietrich.  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6273, pp. 
                    62730T (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.672998
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6273E..25A

Abstract

The recently commissioned system for aluminizing the 8.408 meter diameter Large Binocular Telescope mirrors has a variety of unusual features. Among them are aluminizing the mirror in the telescope, the mirror is horizon pointing when aluminized, boron nitride crucibles are used for the sources, only 28 sources are used, the sources are powered with 280 Volts at 20 kHz, high vacuum is produced with a LN2 cooled charcoal cryo-panel, an inflatable edge seal is used to isolate the rough vacuum behind the mirror from the high vacuum space, and a burst disk is mounted in the center hole to protect the mirror from overpressure. We present a description of these features. Results from aluminizing both primary mirrors are presented.


Title:              Design and manufacture of 8.4 m primary mirror 
                    segments and supports for the GMT
Authors:            Martin, H. M.; Angel, J. R. P.; Burge, J. H.;
                    Cuerden, B.; Davison, W. B.; Johns, M.;
                    Kingsley, J. S.; Kot, L. B.; Lutz, R. D.;
                    Miller, S. M.; Shectman, S. A.;
                    Strittmatter, P. A.; Zhao, C.
Affiliation:        AA(Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AB(Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AC(Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA) and 
                    College of Optical Sciences, Univ. of Arizona 
                    (USA)), AD(Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona 
                    (USA)), AE(Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona 
                    (USA)), AF(Carnegie Observatories (USA)), AG(Steward 
                    Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), AH(Steward 
                    Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), AI(Steward 
                    Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), AJ(Steward 
                    Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), AK(Carnegie 
                    Observatories (USA)), AL(Steward Observatory, Univ. 
                    of Arizona (USA)), AM(College of Optical Sciences, 
                    Univ. of Arizona (USA))
Publication:        Optomechanical Technologies for Astronomy.  Edited 
                    by Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Antebi, Joseph; Lemke, 
                    Dietrich.  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6273, pp. 
                    62730E (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.672149
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6273E..13M

Abstract

The design, manufacture and support of the primary mirror segments for the GMT build on the successful primary mirror systems of the MMT, Magellan and Large Binocular telescopes. The mirror segment and its support system are based on a proven design, and the experience gained in the existing telescopes has led to significant refinements that will provide even better performance in the GMT. The first 8.4 m segment has been cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab, and optical processing is underway. Measurement of the off-axis surface is the greatest challenge in the manufacture of the segments. A set of tests that meets the requirements has been defined and the concepts have been developed in some detail. The most critical parts of the tests have been demonstrated in the measurement of a 1.7 m off-axis prototype. The principal optical test is a full-aperture, high-resolution null test in which a hybrid reflective-diffractive null corrector compensates for the 14 mm aspheric departure of the off-axis segment. The mirror support uses the same synthetic floatation principle as the MMT, Magellan, and LBT mirrors. Refinements for GMT include 3-axis actuators to accommodate the varying orientations of segments in the telescope.


Title:              Beyond conventional G-SCIDAR: the ground-layer in 
                    high vertical resolution
Authors:            Egner, Sebastian E.; Masciadri, Elena;
                    McKenna, Dan; Herbst, T. M.
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), 
                    AB(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AC(Steward Observatory (USA)), 
                    AD(Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (Germany))
Publication:        Advances in Adaptive Optics II.  Edited by 
                    Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico.  
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6272, pp. 627256 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671380
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6272E.164E

Abstract

By using the SCIDAR instrument at the VATT on the top of Mt. Graham and a very wide binary star with a separtion of 35", the vertical structure of the turbulence in the first few hundred meters above the telescope was measured. When using such a binary and analysing the cross-correlation images, a vertical resolution for the turbulence profile of a few tens of meters can be achieved near the ground. This permits to determine the inner structure and the wind sheer of the single turbulent layers inside the ground-layer. We present the principles and the data-reduction process of this method and show first results obtained with this method at Mt. Graham. As an application, we estimate the fraction of the turbulence between the dome of the VATT and the primary mirror of the LBT.


Title:              MANU-CHAO: a laboratory ground-layer adaptive optics 
                    experiment
Authors:            Egner, Sebastian E.; Gaessler, Wolfgang;
                    Ragazzoni, Roberto; LeRoux, Brice;
                    Herbst, T. M.; Farinato, J.; Diolaiti, E.;
                    Arcidiacono, C.
Affiliation:        AA(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), 
                    AB(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), 
                    AC(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Padova 
                    (Italy)), AD(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AE(Max Planck Institute for 
                    Astronomy (Germany)), AF(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Padova (Italy)), AG(INAF, 
                    Osservatorio Astrofisico di Bologna (Italy)), 
                    AH(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Padova (Italy))
Publication:        Advances in Adaptive Optics II.  Edited by 
                    Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico.  
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6272, pp. 62724X 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671608
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6272E.156E

Abstract

We present a laboratory setup of a Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics system. This system is a scaled-down version of the MCAO system of MAD (a MCAO system for the VLT) / LINC-NIRVANA (a Fizeau Imager for the LBT) and measures the wavefront aberrations with 4 pyramids in a layer-oriented fashion with optical co-addition. The laboratory setup contains besides the wavefront-sensing unit a telescope-simulator, a dynamic turbulence generator and a Deformable Mirror for the wavefront correction. We describe the overall system and its single components, open- and closed-loop measurements of the characteristics of a system working in GLAO mode and first results when using a Kalman filter for the control of the wavefront reconstruction process.


Title:              Integration, testing, and laboratory 
                    characterization of the mid-high layer wavefront 
                    sensor for LINC-NIRVANA
Authors:            Lombini, Matteo; Foppiani, Italo;
                    Diolaiti, Emiliano; Farinato, Jacopo;
                    Ragazzoni, Roberto; Bregoli, Giovanni;
                    Ciattaglia, Costantino; Cosentino, Giuseppe;
                    Innocenti, Giancarlo; Schreiber, Laura;
                    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; De Bonis, Fulvio;
                    Egner, Sebastian; Gaessler, Wolfgang;
                    Herbst, Tom; Kuerster, Martin;
                    Schmidt, Johannes; Soci, Roberto;
                    Rossettini, Pierfrancesco; Tomelleri, Raffaele
Affiliation:        AA(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna (Italy) 
                    and INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AB(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di 
                    Bologna (Italy) and INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico 
                    di Arcetri (Italy)), AC(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Bologna (Italy)), AD(INAF, 
                    Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy) and 
                    INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Italy)), 
                    AE(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova 
                    (Italy)), AF(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di 
                    Bologna (Italy)), AG(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico 
                    di Bologna (Italy)), AH(Univ. degli Studi di Bologna 
                    (Italy)), AI(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di 
                    Bologna (Italy)), AJ(Univ. degli Studi di Bologna 
                    (Italy)), AK(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy) and INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico 
                    di Padova (Italy)), AL(Max-Planck-Institut für 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AM(Max-Planck-Institut für 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AN(Max-Planck-Institut für 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AO(Max-Planck-Institut für 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AP(Max-Planck-Institut für 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AQ(Max-Planck-Institut für 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AR(Max-Planck-Institut für 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AS(Tomelleri s.r.l. (Italy)), 
                    AT(Tomelleri s.r.l. (Italy))
Publication:        Advances in Adaptive Optics II.  Edited by 
                    Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico.  
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6272, pp. 62724P 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671600
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6272E.149L

Abstract

The Mid-High Wavefront Sensors (MHWS) are components of the adaptive optics system of LINC-NIRVANA, the Fizeau interferometer that will be mounted at the LBT. These sensors, one for each telescope arm, will measure the atmospheric turbulence in the high altitude layers, using up to 8 reference stars in a 2 arcmin Field of View, and they will be coupled with two Ground Layer WFSs that will measure the lower part of the atmospheric turbulence using up to 12 stars over an annular Field of View from 2 to 6 arcmin in diameter. We will describe the opto-mechanical layout of the MHWS and the Assembly, Integration and Test (AIT) phase of the first sensor in the laboratory of the Bologna Observatory.


Title:              The MCAO wavefront sensing system of LINC-NIRVANA: 
                    status report
Authors:            Farinato, Jacopo; Ragazzoni, Roberto;
                    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Giorgia, Gentile;
                    Diolaiti, Emiliano; Foppiani, Italo;
                    Lombini, Matteo; Schreiber, Laura;
                    Lorenzetti, Dario; D'Alessio, Francesco;
                    Li Causi, Gianluca; Pedichini, Fernando;
                    Vitali, Fabrizio; Herbst, Tom; Kürster, Martin;
                    Bizenberger, Peter; Briegel, Florian;
                    De Bonis, Fulvio; Egner, Sebastian;
                    Gässler, Wolfgang; Mohr, Lars; Pavlov, Alexei;
                    Rohloff, Ralf Rainer; Soci, Roberto
Affiliation:        AA(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AB(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AC(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico 
                    di Arcetri (Italy)), AD(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), AE(INAF, 
                    Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna (Italy)), 
                    AF(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna 
                    (Italy)), AG(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di 
                    Bologna (Italy)), AH(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico 
                    di Bologna (Italy)), AI(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), AJ(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), AK(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), AL(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), AM(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), AN(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    für Astronomie (Germany)), AO(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    für Astronomie (Germany)), AP(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    für Astronomie (Germany)), AQ(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    für Astronomie (Germany)), AR(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    für Astronomie (Germany)), AS(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    für Astronomie (Germany)), AT(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    für Astronomie (Germany)), AU(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    für Astronomie (Germany)), AV(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    für Astronomie (Germany)), AW(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    für Astronomie (Germany)), AX(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    für Astronomie (Germany))
Publication:        Advances in Adaptive Optics II.  Edited by 
                    Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico.  
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6272, pp. 627229 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.673083
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6272E..70F

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is an infrared camera that will work in Fizeau interferometric way at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The two beams that will be combined in the camera are corrected by an MCAO system, aiming to cancel the turbulence in a scientific field of view of 2 arcminutes. The MCAO wavefront sensors will be two for each arm, with the task to sense the atmosphere at two different altitudes (the ground one and a second height variable between a few kilometers and a maximum of 15 kilometers). The first wavefront sensor, namely the Ground layer Wavefront sensor (GWS), will drive the secondary adaptive mirror of LBT, while the second wavefront sensor, namely the Mid High layer Wavefront Sensor (MHWS) will drive a commercial deformable mirror which will also have the possibility to be conjugated to the same altitude of the correspondent wavefront sensor. The entire system is of course duplicated for the two telescopes, and is based on the Multiple Field of View (MFoV) Layer Oriented (LO) technique, having thus different FoV to select the suitable references for the two wavefront sensor: the GWS will use the light of an annular field of view from 2 to 6 arcminutes, while the MHWS will use the central 2 arcminutes part of the FoV. After LINC-NIRVANA has accomplished the final design review, we describe the MFoV wavefront sensing system together with its current status.


Title:              High SNR measurement of interaction matrix on-sky 
                    and in lab
Authors:            Esposito, S.; Tubbs, R.; Puglisi, A.;
                    Oberti, S.; Tozzi, A.; Xompero, M.; Zanotti, D.
Affiliation:        AA(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AB(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AC(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AD(European Southern Observatory (Germany)), 
                    AE(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AF(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AG(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy))
Publication:        Advances in Adaptive Optics II.  Edited by 
                    Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico.  
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6272, pp. 62721C 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.673514
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6272E..41E

Abstract

The fundamental task of AO system calibration is the acquisition of the Interaction Matrix (IM). This task is usually performed in a laboratory or at the telescope using a reference fiber illuminating both deformable mirror and wavefront sensor. The problem of measuring the IM on a bright reference star has been attacked by some authors. The principal problem of this measurement is to achieve a high SNR when atmospheric turbulence is present. This is very difficult if sensor signals are simply time averaged to get rid of the turbulence effects. The paper presents a new technique to perform an on sky measurement of the IM with high SNR and reducing the overall measurement time by an order of magnitude. This technique can be very useful for AO systems using large size DMs like MMT, LBT and possibly VLT and OWL. In these cases fiber-based IM measurements require challenging optical set-up that in some cases, like for OWL, are unpractical to build. The technique is still relevant for classical small DM AO systems that could be calibrated on sky avoiding misregistration errors. Finally this technique is valuable for laboratory measurements when the IM of an AO system has to be measured with great accuracy against external disturbances like bench vibrations, local turbulence effects and so on. Again IM measurement SNR is increased and the overall measurement time can be significantly reduced. The paper will introduce and detail the technique physical principle and quantify with numerical simulations the SNR improvement achieved using this technique. Finally laboratory results obtained during the test of the LBT AO system prototype are given and compared to simulations.


Title:              Deformable secondary mirrors for the LBT adaptive 
                    optics system
Authors:            Martin, H. M.; Brusa Zappellini, G.;
                    Cuerden, B.; Miller, S. M.; Riccardi, A.;
                    Smith, B. K.
Affiliation:        AA(Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AB(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA)), AC(Steward Observatory, Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA)), AD(Steward Observatory, Univ of 
                    Arizona (USA)), AE(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AF(Steward Observatory, Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA))
Publication:        Advances in Adaptive Optics II.  Edited by 
                    Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico.  
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6272, pp. 62720U 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.672698
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6272E..26M

Abstract

We describe the manufacture of thin shells for the deformable secondary mirrors of the LBT adaptive optics system. The secondary mirrors are thin shells, 910 mm in diameter and 1.6 mm thick. Each mirror will have its shape controlled by 672 voice-coil actuators. The main requirement for manufacture of the shell is smoothness on scales too small to be adjusted by the actuators. An additional requirement is that the rear surface match the reference body within 30 $,1'<(Bm peak-to-valley. A technique was developed for producing smooth surfaces on the very aspheric surfaces of the shells. We figure the optical surfaces on a thick disk of Zerodur, then turn the disk over and thin it to 1.6 mm from the rear surface. Figuring is done primarily with a 30 cm diameter stressed lap, which bends actively to match the local curvature of the aspheric surface. For the thinning operation, the mirror is blocked with pitch, optical surface down, onto a granite disk with a matching convex surface. Because the shell may bend during the blocking operation and as its thickness is reduced to 1.6 mm, figuring of the rear surface is guided by precise thickness measurements over the surface of the shell. This method guarantees that both surfaces of the finished shell will satisfy their requirements when corrected with small actuator forces. Following the thinning operation, we edge the shell to its final dimensions, remove it from the blocking body, and coat the rear surface with aluminum to provide a set of conductive plates for capacitive sensors.


Title:              First light AO system for LBT: toward on-sky 
                    operation
Authors:            Esposito, S.; Tozzi, A.; Puglisi, A.;
                    Pinna, E.; Riccardi, A.; Busoni, S.;
                    Busoni, L.; Stefanini, P.; Xompero, M.;
                    Zanotti, D.; Pieralli, F.
Affiliation:        AA(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AB(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AC(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AD(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AE(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AF(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AG(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AH(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AI(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AJ(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AK(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy))
Publication:        Advances in Adaptive Optics II.  Edited by 
                    Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico.  
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6272, pp. 62720A 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.673509
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6272E...8E

Abstract

The paper is describing the present status of the LBT first light AO system. The system design started in January 2002 and is now approaching the final test in the Arcetri solar tower. Two key features of this single conjugate AO system are the use of an adaptive secondary mirror having 672 actuators and a pyramid wavefront sensor with a maximum sampling of 30x30 subapertures. The paper is reporting about the adaptive secondary mechanical electrical and optical integration, and the wavefront sensor unit integration and acceptance test. Finally some lab test of the AO system done using an adaptive secondary prototype with 45 actuators, the so called P45 are described. The aim of these test was to get an estimate of the system limiting magnitude and to demonstrate the feasibility of a new technique able to measure AO system interaction matrix in a shortest time and with higher SNR with respect to the classical interaction matrix measurement. We are planning to use such a technique to calibrate the AO system in Arcetri and later at the LBT telescope.


Title:              Observation preparation software for LINC-NIRVANA
Authors:            Pavlov, Aleksei; Gässler, Wolfgang;
                    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Berwein, Jürgen;
                    Briegel, Florian; Schinnerer, Eva; Herbst, Tom
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AB(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AC(INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AD(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AE(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AF(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AG(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Observatory Operations: Strategies, Processes, and 
                    Systems.  Edited by Silva, David R.; Doxsey, Rodger 
                    E..  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6270, pp. 
                    627011 (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671376
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6270E..34P

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is a Fizeau Interferometer using the two 8.4 m mirrors of LBT in the combined focus. The images can be obtained in K, H and J Band over a 10" × 10" Field of View by means of Multi-Conjugated Adaptive Optics (MCAO) and a Fringe and Flexure Tracker System (FFTS). In interferometry, the planning of observations is much more tightly connected to the reduction of data than in traditional astronomy. Such observations need to be carefully prepared, taking into account the constraints imposed by scientific objectives as well as features of the instrument. The Observation Preparation Software (OPS), currently under development at MPIA, is a tool to support an astronomer (observer) in the complex process of preparing the observations for LINC-NIRVANA. The main goal of this tool is to provide the observer with an idea what he or she can do and what to expect under given conditions.


Title:              Reactive scheduling for LINC-NIRVANA
Authors:            Berwein, Juergen; Pavlov, Aleksei;
                    Briegel, Florian; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Storz, Clemens
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AB(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AC(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AD(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AE(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany))
Publication:        Observatory Operations: Strategies, Processes, and 
                    Systems.  Edited by Silva, David R.; Doxsey, Rodger 
                    E..  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6270, pp. 
                    627010 (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671261
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6270E..33B

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is a Fizeau interferometer for the LBT. The instrument combines the two 8.4 m telescopes into one image plane. The fixed geometry of the telescope and the adaptive optics of the instrument put constraints on the observation schedule. Environmental changes influences the execution of observations. We present a robust and reactive scheduling strategy to achieve high observation efficiency and scientific results with our instrument.


Title:              The LINC-NIRVANA patrol camera
Authors:            Lorenzetti, Dario; D'Alessio, Francesco;
                    Li Causi, Gianluca; Vitali, Fabrizio;
                    Pedichini, Fernando; Speziali, Roberto;
                    Diolaiti, Emiliano; Farinato, Jacopo;
                    Ragazzoni, Roberto; Briegel, Florian;
                    De Bonis, Fulvio; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Soci, Roberto
Affiliation:        AA(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), 
                    AB(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna 
                    (Italy)), AC(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma 
                    (Italy)), AD(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma 
                    (Italy)), AE(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma 
                    (Italy)), AF(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma 
                    (Italy)), AG(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di 
                    Bologna (Italy)), AH(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico 
                    di Arcetri (Italy)), AI(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AJ(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AK(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AL(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AM(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany))
Publication:        Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for 
                    Astronomy.  Edited by McLean, Ian S.; Iye, Masanori. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6269, pp. 62695C 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.668881
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6269E.169L

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is the IR Fizeau interferometric imager of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona. Here we describe in particular the design, realization and preliminary tests of the so-called Patrol Camera. It can image (in the range 600-900 nm) the same 2 arcmin FoV seen by the Medium- High-Wavefront Sensor (MHWS), adequately sampled to provide the MHWS star enlargers with the positions of the FoV stars with an accuracy of 0.1 arcsec. To this aim a diffraction-limited performance is not required, while a distortion free focal plane is needed to provide a suitable astrometric output. Two identical systems will be realized, one for each single arm, which corresponds to each single telescope. We give here the details concerning the optical and mechanical design, as well as the CCD and the control system. The interfaces with LINC-NIRVANA are also presented both in terms of matching the carbon fiber optical bench and developing of suitable software procedures. Since the major components have been already gathered, the laboratory tests and the integration are currently in progress.


Title:              The LINC-NIRVANA IR cryostat
Authors:            Laun, W.; Baumeister, H.; Bizenberger, P.
Affiliation:        AA(Max Planck Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AB(Max Planck Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AC(Max Planck Institut für Astronomie (Germany))
Publication:        Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for 
                    Astronomy.  Edited by McLean, Ian S.; Iye, Masanori. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6269, pp. 626956 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671642
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6269E.163L

Abstract

The MPIA is leading an international consortium of institutes building an instrument called LINC-NIRVANA. The instrument will combine the light from the two 8.4 m primary mirrors of the LBT. The beam combiner will operate at wavelengths between 1.1 and 2.4 microns, using a Hawaii2 detector. A volume of about 1.6 m high with a diameter of about 0.65 m is required for the cold optics. The size of the instrument and the high requirements on vibrations brought us to a new approach for the cooling of the cryostat, which has never been tried in astronomy. The cryostat will be cooled by a flow of Helium gas. The cooler which cools the gas will be placed far away on a different level in the telescope building. The cold helium will be fed through long vacuum isolated transfer lines to the instrument cryostat. Inside the cryostat a tube will be wrapped around the mounting structure of the cold optics. The first hardware arrived at the MPIA in 2005 and the system will soon be tested in our labs.


Title:              LIINUS/SERPIL: a design study for interferometric 
                    imaging spectroscopy at the LBT
Authors:            Gál, C.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Krabbe, A.;
                    Eisenhauer, F.; Iserlohe, C.; Haug, M.;
                    Herbst, T. M.
Affiliation:        AA(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AB(Max-Plank 
                    Institute for extraterrestrial Physics (Germany)), 
                    AC(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AD(Max-Plank 
                    Institute for extraterrestrial Physics (Germany)), 
                    AE(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AF(Max-Plank 
                    Institute for extraterrestrial Physics (Germany)), 
                    AG(Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy (Germany))
Publication:        Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for 
                    Astronomy.  Edited by McLean, Ian S.; Iye, Masanori. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6269, pp. 62693O 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.670220
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6269E.116G

Abstract

LIINUS/SERPIL is a design study to augment LBTs interferometric beam combiner camera LINC-NIRVANA with imaging spectroscopy. The FWHM of the interferometric main beam at 1.5 micron will be about 10 mas, offering unique imaging and spectroscopic capabilities well beyond the angular resolution of current 8-10m telescopes. At 10 mas angular scale, e.g., one resolution element at the distance of the Galactic Center corresponds to the average diameter of the Pluto orbit (79 AU), hence the size of the solar system. Taking advantage of the LBT interferometric beam with an equivalent maximum diameter of 23 m, LIINUS/SERPIL is an ideal precursor instrument for (imaging) spectrographs at extremely large full aperture telescopes. LIINUS/SERPIL will be built upon the LINC-NIRVANA hardware and LIINUS/SERPIL could potentially be developed on a rather short timescale. The study investigates several concepts for the optical as well as for the mechanical design. We present the scientific promises of such an instrument together with the current status of the design study.


Title:              LUCIFER status report: Summer 2006
Authors:            Mandel, H. G.; Appenzeller, I.; Seifert, W.;
                    Baumeister, H.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Feiz, C.;
                    Gemperlein, H.; Germeroth, A.; Grimm, B.;
                    Heidt, J.; Herbst, T.; Hofmann, R.;
                    Jütte, M.; Knierim, V.; Laun, W.; Luks, T.;
                    Lehmitz, M.; Lenzen, R.; Polsterer, K.;
                    Quirrenbach, A.; Rohloff, R.-R.;
                    Rosenberger, J.; Weiser, P.; Weisz, H.
Affiliation:        AA(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl 
                    (Germany)), AB(Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Königstuhl (Germany)), 
                    AC(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl 
                    (Germany)), AD(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AE(Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)), 
                    AF(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl 
                    (Germany)), AG(Max-Planck-Institut für 
                    Extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)), 
                    AH(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl 
                    (Germany)), AI(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AJ(Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Königstuhl (Germany)), 
                    AK(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AL(Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik 
                    (Germany)), AM(Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)), 
                    AN(Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)), 
                    AO(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AP(Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)), 
                    AQ(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AR(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AS(Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)), AT(Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Königstuhl (Germany)), 
                    AU(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AV(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl 
                    (Germany)), AW(Fachhochschule Mannheim (Germany)), 
                    AX(Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for 
                    Astronomy.  Edited by McLean, Ian S.; Iye, Masanori. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6269, pp. 62693F 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671067
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6269E.107M

Abstract

LUCIFER (LBT NIR Spectrograph Utility with Camera and Integral-Field Unit for Extragalactic Research) is a NIR spectrograph and imager for the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope) working in the wavelength range from 0.9 to 2.5 microns. Two instruments are built by a consortium of five German institutes (Landessternwarte Heidelberg (LSW), Max Planck Institut for Astronomy (MPIA), Max Planck Institut for Extraterrestric Physics (MPE), Astronomical Institut of the Ruhr-University Bochum (AIRUB) and Fachhochschule for Technics and Design Mannheim (FHTG). All major components for the first instrument have been manufactured or are in the final stage of procurement. While integration and testing of LUCIFER 1 started in spring 2006 at the MPIA in Heidelberg, the cryostat for LUCIFER 2 has been sent to the MPE in Garching for system integration tests of the MOS-unit and testing of the mask cabinet exchange. The control electronics for the basic instrument has been manufactured, the MOS control electronics has been integrated and is being debugged. The MOS control software is under development by AIRUB. Fabrication and integration of components for LUCIFER 2 have started.


Title:              MegaMIR: a Fizeau thermal infrared camera for the 
                    LBTI
Authors:            Mainzer, A. K.; Young, Erick; Hong, John;
                    Hinz, Phil; Werner, Mike; Gorjian, Varoujan;
                    Ressler, Michael E.
Affiliation:        AA(Jet Propulsion Lab. (USA)), AB(Univ. of Arizona 
                    (USA)), AC(Jet Propulsion Lab. (USA)), AD(Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA)), AE(Jet Propulsion Lab. (USA)), 
                    AF(Jet Propulsion Lab. (USA)), AG(Jet Propulsion 
                    Lab. (USA))
Publication:        Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for 
                    Astronomy.  Edited by McLean, Ian S.; Iye, Masanori. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6269, pp. 626910 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.670380
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6269E..33M

Abstract

The Megapixel Mid-infrared Instrument (MegaMIR) is a proposed Fizeau-mode camera for the Large Binocular Telescope operating at wavelengths between 5 and 28 $,1'<(Bm. The camera will be used in conjunction with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), a cryogenic optical system that combines the beams from twin 8.4-m telescopes in a phase coherent manner. Unlike other interferometric systems, the co-mounted telescopes on the LBT satisfy the sine condition, providing diffraction-limited resolution over the 40" field of view of the camera. With a 22.8-m baseline, MegaMIR will yield 0.1" angular resolution, making it the highest resolution wide field imager in the thermal infrared for at least the next decade. MegaMIR will utilize a newly developed 1024 x 1024 pixel Si:As detector array that has been optimized for use at high backgrounds. This new detector is a derivative of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) low-background detector. The combination of high angular resolution and wide field imaging will be a unique scientific capability for astronomy. Key benefits will be realized in planetary science, galactic, and extra-galactic astronomy. High angular resolution is essential to disentangle highly complex sources, particularly in star formation regions and external galaxies, and MegaMIR provides this performance over a full field of view. Because of the great impact being made by space observatories like the Spitzer Space Telescope, the number of available targets for study has greatly increased in recent years, and MegaMIR will allow efficient follow up science.


Title:              The multi-object double spectrographs for the Large 
                    Binocular Telescope
Authors:            Pogge, R. W.; Atwood, B.; Belville, S. R.;
                    Brewer, D. F.; Byard, P. L.; DePoy, D. L.;
                    Derwent, M. A.; Eastwood, J.; Gonzalez, R.;
                    Krygier, A.; Marshall, J. R.; Martini, P.;
                    Mason, J. A.; O'Brien, T. P.; Osmer, P. S.;
                    Pappalardo, D. P.; Steinbrecher, D. P.;
                    Teiga, E. J.; Weinberg, D. H.
Affiliation:        AA(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), AB(The Ohio State 
                    Univ. (USA)), AC(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), AD(The 
                    Ohio State Univ. (USA)), AE(The Ohio State Univ. 
                    (USA)), AF(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), AG(The Ohio 
                    State Univ. (USA)), AH(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), 
                    AI(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), AJ(The Ohio State 
                    Univ. (USA)), AK(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), AL(The 
                    Ohio State Univ. (USA)), AM(The Ohio State Univ. 
                    (USA)), AN(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), AO(The Ohio 
                    State Univ. (USA)), AP(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), 
                    AQ(The Ohio State Univ. (USA)), AR(The Ohio State 
                    Univ. (USA)), AS(The Ohio State Univ. (USA))
Publication:        Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for 
                    Astronomy.  Edited by McLean, Ian S.; Iye, Masanori. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6269, pp. 62690I 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.670704
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6269E..16P

Abstract

Ohio State is building two identical Multi-Object Double Spectrographs (MODS), one for each of the f/15 Gregorian foci of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Each MODS is a high-throughput optical low- to medium-resolution CCD spectrometer operating in the 320-1000nm range with a 6.5-arcminute field-of-view. A dichroic distributes the science beam into separately-optimized red and blue channels that provide for direct imaging and up to 3 spectroscopic modes per channel. The identical MODS instruments may be operated together with digital data combination as a single instrument giving the LBT an effective aperture of 11.8-meter, or separately configured to flexibly use the twin 8.4-meter apertures. This paper describes progress on the integration and testing of MODS1, and plans for the deployment of MODS2 by the end of 2008 at the LBT.


Title:              LINC-NIRVANA: optical design of an interferometric 
                    imaging camera
Authors:            Bizenberger, P.; Diolaiti, E.; Egner, S.;
                    Herbst, T. M.; Ragazzoni, R.; Reymann, D.; Xu, W.
Affiliation:        AA(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), 
                    AB(Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna (Italy)), 
                    AC(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), 
                    AD(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), 
                    AE(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AF(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), 
                    AG(Optical System Engineering (Germany))
Publication:        Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for 
                    Astronomy.  Edited by McLean, Ian S.; Iye, Masanori. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6269, pp. 62690D 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671569
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6269E..11B

Abstract

Combining the two 8.4 m telescopes of the Large Binocular Telescope 1(LBT) offers the unique possibility to achieve diffraction limited images with 23 m spatial resolution. This requires an interferometric superposition of the two telescope beams in a Fizeau-type interferometer. LINC-NIRVANA delivers a 10 arcsec x 10 arcsec panoramic field of view with 5 mas pixel size. In addition to delivering diffraction limited, single-telescope images, the optics have several additional constraints imposed by interferometric operation. In this paper, we describe the evolution of the optical design and how the individual optical subsystems were developed in parallel to provide optimal combined performance. We also present an alignment strategy to setup the optics and to achieve zero optical path difference.


Title:              An overview of instrumentation for the Large 
                    Binocular Telescope
Authors:            Wagner, R. Mark
Affiliation:        AA(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, The Ohio 
                    State Univ. (USA))
Publication:        Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for 
                    Astronomy.  Edited by McLean, Ian S.; Iye, Masanori. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6269, pp. 626909 
                    (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.670636
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6269E...7W

Abstract

An overview of instrumentation for the Large Binocular Telescope is presented. Optical instrumentation includes the Large Binocular Camera (LBC), a pair of wide-field (27' × 27') mosaic CCD imagers at the prime focus, and the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph (MODS), a pair of dual-beam blue-red optimized long-slit spectrographs mounted at the straight-through F/15 Gregorian focus incorporating multiple slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy over a 6' field and spectral resolutions of up to 8000. Infrared instrumentation includes the LBT Near-IR Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research (LUCIFER), a modular near-infrared (0.9-2.5 $,1'<(Bm) imager and spectrograph pair mounted at a bent interior focal station and designed for seeing-limited (FOV: 4' × 4') imaging, long-slit spectroscopy, and multi-object spectroscopy utilizing cooled slit masks and diffraction limited (FOV: 0'.5 × 0'.5) imaging and long-slit spectroscopy. Strategic instruments under development for the remaining two combined focal stations include an interferometric cryogenic beam combiner with near-infrared and thermal-infrared instruments for Fizeau imaging and nulling interferometry (LBTI) and an optical bench near-infrared beam combiner utilizing multi-conjugate adaptive optics for high angular resolution and sensitivity (LINC-NIRVANA). In addition, a fiber-fed bench spectrograph (PEPSI) capable of ultra high resolution spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry (R = 40,000-300,000) will be available as a principal investigator instrument. The availability of all these instruments mounted simultaneously on the LBT permits unique science, flexible scheduling, and improved operational support.


Title:              The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracker: image 
                    analysis concept and fringe tracking performance 
                    estimate
Authors:            Bertram, Thomas; Arcidiacono, Carmelo;
                    Straubmeier, Christian; Rost, Steffen;
                    Wang, Yeping; Eckart, Andreas
Affiliation:        AA(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AB(INAF - 
                    Osservatorio di Arcetri (Italy)), AC(Univ. of 
                    Cologne (Germany)), AD(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), 
                    AE(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AF(Univ. of Cologne 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Advances in Stellar Interferometry.  Edited by 
                    Monnier, John D.; Schöller, Markus; Danchi, William 
                    C..  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6268, pp. 
                    62683P (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671542
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6268E.117B

Abstract

The correction of atmospheric differential piston and instrumental flexure effects is mandatory for interferometric operation of the LBT NIR interferometric imaging camera LINC-NIRVANA. The task of the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS) is to detect and correct these effects in real-time. In the fringe tracking concept that we present, differential piston information is gathered in the image plane by analyzing the PSF of a reference star anywhere in the large field of view of the LBT. We have developed and tested a fast PSF analysis algorithm that allows to clearly identify differential piston even in the case of low S/N. We present performance estimates of the algorithm. Since the performance of the FFTS algorithm has a strong impact on the overall sky coverage of LINC-NIRVANA, we studied the required limiting magnitudes of the fringe tracking reference star for different scenarios. As the FFTS may not necessarily operate on the science target, but rather uses a suitable reference star at a certain angular distance to the science target, differences between piston values at the two positions add to the residual piston of the FFTS. We have dealt with the question of differential piston angular anisoplanatism and studied a possible improvement of the isopistonic patch size by the use of multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO). In its final stage, LINC-NIRVANA will be equipped with such a system.


Title:              The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracker: 
                    cryo-ambient mechanical design
Authors:            Bertram, Thomas; Baumeister, Harald;
                    Laun, Werner; Straubmeier, Christian;
                    Rost, Steffen; Wang, Yeping; Eckart, Andreas
Affiliation:        AA(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AB(Max Planck 
                    Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), AC(Max Planck 
                    Institute for Astronomy (Germany)), AD(Univ. of 
                    Cologne (Germany)), AE(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), 
                    AF(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AG(Univ. of Cologne 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Advances in Stellar Interferometry.  Edited by 
                    Monnier, John D.; Schöller, Markus; Danchi, William 
                    C..  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6268, pp. 
                    62683L (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671378
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6268E.114B

Abstract

The correction of atmospheric differential piston and instrumental flexure effects is mandatory for interferometric operation of the LBT NIR interferometric imaging camera LINC-NIRVANA. The task of the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS) is to detect and correct these effects in a real-time closed loop. Being a Fizeau-Interferometer, the LBT provides a large field of view (FoV). The FFTS can make use of the large FoV and increase the sky coverage of the overall instrument if it is able to acquire the light of a suitable fringe tracking reference star within the FoV. For this purpose, the FFTS detector needs to be moved to the position of the reference star PSF in the curved focal plane and needs to precisely follow its trajectory as the field rotates. Sub-pixel (1 pixel = 18.5 micron) positioning accuracy is required over a travel range of 200mm x 300mm x 70mm. Strong are the constraints imposed by the need of a cryogenic environment for the moving detector. We present a mechanical design, in which the Detector Positioning Unit (DPU) is realized with off-the-shelf micro-positioning stages, which can be kept at ambient temperature. A moving baffle will prevent the intrusion of radiation from the ambient temperature environment into the cryogenic interior of the camera. This baffle consists of two nested disks, which synchronously follow any derotation - or repositioning trajectory of the DPU. The detector, its fanout board and a filter wheel are integrated into a housing that is mounted on top of the DPU and that protects the FFTS detector from stray light. Long and flexible copper bands allow heat transfer from the housing to the LINC-NIRVANA heat exchanger.


Title:              Aperture synthesis imaging with the LBT: 
                    reconstruction of diffraction-limited images from 
                    LBT LINC-NIRVANA data using the Richardson-Lucy and 
                    regularized building block method
Authors:            Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Driebe, Thomas;
                    Heininger, Mathias; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie 
                    (Germany)), AB(Max-Planck-Institut für 
                    Radioastronomie (Germany)), AC(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    für Radioastronomie (Germany)), 
                    AD(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie 
                    (Germany)), AE(Max-Planck-Institut für 
                    Radioastronomie (Germany))
Publication:        Advances in Stellar Interferometry.  Edited by 
                    Monnier, John D.; Schöller, Markus; Danchi, William 
                    C..  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6268, pp. 
                    62683H (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.671535
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6268E.111H

Abstract

The regularized and space-variant Building Block method allow the reconstruction of diffraction-limited aperture-synthesis images from Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) LINC-NIRVANA data. Images with the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.8 m single-dish telescope can be reconstructed if raw images are taken at several different hour angles. Computer-generated and laboratory LBT interferograms were simulated that are similar to the data which can be obtained with the LINC-NIRVANA beam combiner instrument. From the simulated interferograms, diffraction-limited images were reconstructed with the regularized Building Block method, which is an extension of the Building Block method. We compare the Building Block reconstructions to images obtained with the Richardson-Lucy (RL) method and the Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method. Our image reconstruction studies were performed with computer-simulated J-band and laboratory H-band raw data of a galaxy with simulated total magnitudes of J = 16 to 18 and H = 16 to 19, respectively. One of the faintest structures in the images has a brightness of J~25. The simulated reference stars within the isoplanatic patch have magnitudes of J = 20 - 21 and H = 19. All three methods are able to reconstruct diffraction-limited images of similar quality.


Title:              Interferometric observations of the galactic center: 
                    LBT and VLTI
Authors:            Eckart, Andreas; Schödel, Rainer;
                    Straubmeier, Christian; Bertram, Thomas;
                    Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Muzic, Koraljka;
                    Meyer, Leonhard; Moultaka, Jihane;
                    Viehmann, Thomas; Rost, Steffen; Herbst, Tom
Affiliation:        AA(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AB(Univ. of Cologne 
                    (Germany)), AC(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AD(Univ. 
                    of Cologne (Germany)), AE(Univ. of Cologne (Germany) 
                    and European Southern Observatory (Germany)), 
                    AF(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AG(Univ. of Cologne 
                    (Germany)), AH(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AI(Univ. 
                    of Cologne (Germany)), AJ(Univ. of Cologne 
                    (Germany)), AK(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Advances in Stellar Interferometry.  Edited by 
                    Monnier, John D.; Schöller, Markus; Danchi, William 
                    C..  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6268, pp. 
                    62681J (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.670283
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6268E..49E

Abstract

Current and future opportunities for interferometric observations of the Galactic Center in the near- and mid-infrared (NIR/MIR) wavelength domain are highlighted. Main emphasis is being put on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The Galactic Center measurements of stellar orbits and strongly variable NIR and X-ray emission from Sagittarius A* (SgrA*) at the center of the Milky Way have provided the strongest evidence so far that the dark mass concentration at this position is associated with a super massive black hole. Similar dark mass concentrations seen in many galactic nuclei are most likely super massive black holes as well. High angular resolution interferometric observations in the NIR/MIR will provide key information on the central massive black hole and the stellar cluster it is embedded in. These observations have already started: Recent results on the luminous dust enshrowded star IRS3 using MIDI at the VLTI are presented and future scientific possibilities in the GC using MIDI at the VLTI in the MIR and GRAVITY in the NIR are highlighted. As a NIR wide field interferometric imager offering an angular resolution of about 10 milliarcseconds LINC/NIRVANA at the Large Binocular Telescope will be an ideal instrument for imaging galactic nuclei including the center of the Milky Way.


Title:              The imaging fringe and flexure tracker of 
                    LINC-NIRVANA: basic opto-mechanical design and 
                    principle of operation
Authors:            Straubmeier, Christian; Bertram, Thomas;
                    Eckart, Andreas; Rost, Steffen; Wang, Yeping;
                    Herbst, Tom; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Weigelt, Gerd
Affiliation:        AA(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AB(Univ. of Cologne 
                    (Germany)), AC(Univ. of Cologne (Germany)), AD(Univ. 
                    of Cologne (Germany)), AE(Univ. of Cologne 
                    (Germany)), AF(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AG(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AH(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Advances in Stellar Interferometry.  Edited by 
                    Monnier, John D.; Schöller, Markus; Danchi, William 
                    C..  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6268, pp. 
                    62681I (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.670160
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6268E..48S

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is the interferometric near-infrared imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Being able to observe at wavelength bands from J to K (suppported by an adaptive optics system operating at visible light) LINC-NIRVANA will provide an unique and unprecedented combination of high angular resolution (~ 9 milliarcseconds at 1.25$,1'<(Bm), wide field of view (~ 100 arcseconds2 at 1.25$,1'<(Bm), and large collecting area (~ 100m2). One of the major contributions of the 1. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne to this project is the development and provision of the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS). In addition to the single-eye adaptive optics systems the FFTS is a crucial component to ensure a time-stable wavefront correction over the full aperture of the double-eye telescope, a mandatory pre-requisite for interferometric observations. Using a independent HAWAII 1 detector array at a combined focus close to the science detector, the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System analyses the complex two-dimensional interferometric point spread function (PSF) of a suitably bright reference source at frame rates of up to several hundred Hertz. By fitting a parameterised theoretical model PSF to the preprocessed image-data the FFTS determines the amount of pistonic phase difference and angular misalignment between the wavefronts of the two optical paths of LINC-NIRVANA. For every exposure the corrective parameters are derived in real-time and transmitted to a dedicated piezo-electric fast linear mirror for simple path lengths adjustments, and/or to the adaptive optics systems of the single-eye telescopes for more complicated corrections. In this paper we present the basic concept and currect status of the opto-mechanical design of the Fringe and Flexure Tracker, the operating principle of the fringe and flexure tracking loops, and the encouraging result of a laboratory test of the piston control loop.


Title:              The Large Binocular Telescope main axis encoders: 
                    mounting hardware, read heads, and tape installation
Authors:            Callahan, S.; Ashby, D.; Hair, T.;
                    Brynnel, J.; Donovan, S.; Dionies, F.
Affiliation:        AA(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (USA)), 
                    AB(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (USA)), 
                    AC(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (USA)), 
                    AD(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (USA)), 
                    AE(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (USA)), 
                    AF(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (USA))
Publication:        Ground-based and Airborne Telescopes.  Edited by 
                    Stepp, Larry M..  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    6267, pp. 62673B (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.670508
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6267E.109C

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBT) encoded their elevation and azimuth axis with Farrand Inductosyn tape encoders. The authors present the unique design requirements to achieve high precision tracking and pointing. This paper describes the mechanical hardware used to meet these goals. The telescope elevation axis uses two tapes to encode 14m diameter tracks machined into the optical support structure. Each elevation tape is encoded with two custom read heads machined to fit the surfaces. The read heads are mounted on spring loaded flexures with rollers to insure consistent alignment of the heads to the tapes and to allow for radial run out. The azimuth is encoded with two tapes set end to end. Four custom read heads have been installed on similar flexures. The tape mounting hardware has been designed to maintain uniform and constant tension over the lifetime of the tape. We also describe the equipment and procedures used during installation to insure uniform tension of the tape in the track.


Title:              Exoplanet imaging with the Giant Magellan Telescope
Authors:            Angel, Roger; Codona, Johanan L.; Hinz, Phil;
                    Close, Laird
Affiliation:        AA(Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AB(Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AC(Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AD(Steward Observatory, Univ. of Arizona (USA))
Publication:        Ground-based and Airborne Telescopes.  Edited by 
                    Stepp, Larry M..  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    6267, pp. 62672A (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.672251
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6267E..73A

Abstract

Over the next decade, we can expect that some imaging of extrasolar planets will be possible with the high-resolution LBT and present 8 m class telescopes. But it will be limited by sensitivity and contrast ratio to self-luminous planets of the nearest young stars. When the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) comes on-line, it will have because of much larger light grasp and sharper PSF, the potential for imaging many new planets as well as, for the first time, imaging planets of known msini. It will also be capable of starting atmospheric studies through spectrophotometry. The full angular resolution of the GMT (that of D=24 m filled aperture) will be exploited with coronagraphy and nulling interferometry. The new coronagraphic technique of phase apodization being pioneered at the MMT will enable very high contrast at angular separations $,1y%(B3$,1';(B/D. To reach the highest contrast levels, the AO system is being designed not to minimize wavefront error, but to shape the corrected wavefront so as to cancel speckles in the search region. Interferometric measurements of complex amplitude in the focal plane make this possible, regardless of whether the speckles originate from errors in diffraction or phase. New control algorithms are being developed to minimize the decorrelation time as well as the intensity of residual speckles, so that they average out to the smoothest possible background halo. In this way, detections at 1.65 $,1'<(Bm at the 5$,1'C (Blevel of planets at 10-8 contrast at 50 mas separation should be possible. The low background AO system of the GMT, made with its deformable secondary, will allow also high contrast imaging with high sensitivity at 5 $,1'<(Bm, down to 100 mas separation.


Title:              The Large Binocular Telescope
Authors:            Hill, John M.; Green, Richard F.; Slagle, James H.
Affiliation:        AA(Univ. of Arizona, Large Binocular Telescope 
                    Observatory (USA)), AB(Univ. of Arizona, Large 
                    Binocular Telescope Observatory (USA)), AC(Univ. of 
                    Arizona, Large Binocular Telescope Observatory 
                    (USA))
Publication:        Ground-based and Airborne Telescopes.  Edited by 
                    Stepp, Larry M..  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    6267, pp. 62670Y (2006). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.669832
Bibliographic Code: 2006SPIE.6267E..31H

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project is a collaboration between institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio and Virginia. The telescope on Mt. Graham in southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4-meter diameter primary mirrors mounted side-by-side to produce a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8-meter circular aperture. A unique feature of LBT is that the light from the two primary mirrors can be combined to produce phased array imaging of an extended field. This coherent imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65-meter telescope. The first primary mirror was aluminized in April 2005. First light with a single primary mirror and a prime focus imager was achieved in October 2005. We describe here some of the technical challenges met and solved on the way to First Light. The second of two 8.4-meter borosilicate honeycomb primary mirrors has been installed in the telescope in October 2005 and was aluminized in January 2006. Binocular operation with two prime focus cameras is planned for Fall 2006. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors is now being integrated with its electro-mechanics.


Title:              Design of the Telemetry Control System for the Large 
                    Binocular Telescope
Authors:            de La Peña, M. D.; Axelrod, T.
Publication:        Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XV 
                    ASP Conference Series, Vol. 351, Proceedings of the 
                    Conference Held 2-5 October 2005 in San Lorenzo de 
                    El Escorial, Spain. Edited by Carlos Gabriel, 
                    Christophe Arviset, Daniel Ponz, and Enrique Solano. 
                    San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 
                    2006., p.727
Publication Date:   07/2006
Origin:             ASP
Bibliographic Code: 2006ASPC..351..727D

Abstract

The Telemetry Control Subsystem (TEL) of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is responsible for capturing sets of time-sampled telescope control system data, referred to as streams. These streams can originate in any of the LBT telescope control subsystems and are delivered over a dedicated 1 Gbit/s network to a telemetry archive. The telescope control subsystems are autonomous entities which control telescope hardware through low-level interfaces (e.g., enclosure, mirror cell, pointing and mount control, etc.).

The stream type, characterized according to the main associated subsystem, and the sets of variables which comprise a telemetry stream are currently pre-defined in a MySQL database. A graphical user interface developed in Qt provides the functionality which allows the user to start a pre-defined stream, set the parameters under which the stream should be initiated, and the option to generate a graphical view of the data stream. The graphics are handled by MATLAB and its accompanying GUI builder, GUIDE. The actual data stream is written out to a series of Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) files; the HDF files serve as the stream archive which is tracked by the MySQL database.



Title:              Application of iterative blind deconvolution to the 
                    reconstruction of LBT LINC-NIRVANA images
Authors:            Desiderá, G.; Anconelli, B.; Bertero, M.;
                    Boccacci, P.; Carbillet, M.
Affiliation:        AA(DISI, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, 
                    16146 Genova, Italy 
                    ), AB(DISI, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy), AC(DISI, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy), AD(DISI, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy), AE(Laboratoire Universitaire d'Astrophysique de Nice, UMR 6525, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 02, France) 

Publication:        Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 452, Issue 2, 
                    June III 2006, pp.727-734 (A&A Homepage)
Publication Date:   06/2006
Origin:             EDP
Keywords:           methods: numerical, techniques: image processing
DOI:                10.1051/0004-6361:20054481
Bibliographic Code: 2006A&A...452..727D

Abstract

Context: .The paper is about methods for multiple image deconvolution and their application to the reconstruction of the images acquired by the Fizeau interferometer, denoted LINC-NIRVANA, under development for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The multiple images of the same target are obtained with different orientations of the baseline.
Aims: .To propose and develop a blind method for dealing with cases where no knowledge or very poor knowledge of the point spread functions (PSF) is available.
Methods: .The approach is an iterative one where object and PSFs are alternately updated using deconvolution methods related to the standard Richardson-Lucy method. It is basically an extension, to the multiple image case, of iterative blind deconvolution methods proposed in the case of a single image.
Results: .The method is applied to simulated LBT LINC-NIRVANA images and its limitations are investigated. The algorithm has been implemented in the module BLI of the software package AIRY (Astronomical Image Reconstruction in interferometrY), available under request. The preliminary results we have obtained are promising but an extensive simulation program is still necessary for a full understanding of the applicability of the method in the practice of the reconstruction of LINC-NIRVANA images.



Title:              Reduction of boundary effects in multiple image 
                    deconvolution with an application to LBT 
                    LINC-NIRVANA
Authors:            Anconelli, B.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.;
                    Carbillet, M.; Lanteri, H.
Affiliation:        AA(DISI, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 35, 
                    16146 Genova, Italy), AB(DISI, Università di Genova, 
                    Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy), AC(DISI, 
                    Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 
                    Genova, Italy), AD(Laboratoire Universitaire 
                    d'Astrophysique de Nice, UMR 6525, Parc Valrose, 
                    06108 Nice Cedex 02, France), AE(Laboratoire 
                    Universitaire d'Astrophysique de Nice, UMR 6525, 
                    Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 02, France)
Publication:        Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 448, Issue 3, 
                    March IV 2006, pp.1217-1224 (A&A Homepage)
Publication Date:   03/2006
Origin:             EDP
Keywords:           methods: data analysis, methods: numerical
DOI:                10.1051/0004-6361:20053848
Bibliographic Code: 2006A&A...448.1217A

Abstract

Our approach proposed in a previous paper for the reduction of boundary effects in the deconvolution of astronomical images by the Richardson-Lucy method (RLM) is extended here to the problem of multiple image deconvolution and applied to the reconstruction of the images of LINC-NIRVANA, the German-Italian beam combiner for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). We investigate the multiple image RLM, its accelerated version ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM), and the regularized versions of these twomethods. In addition we show how the approach can be extended to the iterative space reconstruction algorithm (ISRA), which is an iterative method converging to non-negative least squares solutions. Numerical simulations indicate that the approach can provide excellent results with aconsiderable reduction of the boundary effects.


Title:              V723 Cassiopeiae
Authors:            Ness, J.-U.; Starrfield, S.; Schwarz, G.;
                    Vanlandingham, K.; Wagner, R. M.; Lyke, J.;
                    Woodward, C. E.; Lynch, D. K.; Krautter, J.
Publication:        IAU Circ., 8676, 2 (2006).  Edited by Green, D. W. 
                    E. (IAUC Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2006
Origin:             CBAT
Objects:            V723 Cas
Bibliographic Code: 2006IAUC.8676....2N

Abstract

IAUC 8676 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.


Title:              V723 Cassiopeiae
Authors:            Ness, J.-U.; Starrfield, S.; Schwarz, G.;
                    Vanlandingham, K.; Wagner, R. M.; Lyke, J.;
                    Woodward, C. E.; Lynch, D. K.
Publication:        Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams, 404, 1 (2006).  
                    Edited by Green, D. W. E.
Publication Date:   02/2006
Origin:             CBAT
Objects:            V723 Cas
Bibliographic Code: 2006CBET..404....1N

Abstract

CBET 404 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.


Title:              The Future of Astrometric Education
Authors:            van Altena, W.; Stavinschi, M.
Affiliation:        AA(Yale University, USA.)
Publication:        Third International Meeting of Dynamic Astronomy in 
                    Latin America (Eds. Carlos Abad, Ángel Bongiovanni, 
                    & Yaneth Guillén) Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y 
                    Astrofísica (Serie de Conferencias) Vol. 25, pp. 
                    61-62 (2006) (http://www.astroscu.unam.mx/~rmaa/) 
                    (RMxAC Homepage)
Publication Date:   01/2006
Origin:             RMXAC
Keywords:           Astrometry, Sociology of Astronomy
Abstract Copyright: (C) 2006; Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad 
                    Nacional Autónoma de México
Comment:            ISBN: 9703228038
Bibliographic Code: 2006RMxAC..25...61A

Abstract

Astrometry is poised to enter an era of unparalleled growth and relevance due to the wealth of highly accurate data expected from the SIM and GAIA space missions. Innovative ground-based telescopes are planned, such as the LSST, which will provide less precise data, but for many more stars. The potential for studies of the structure, kinematics and dynamics of our Galaxy as well as for the physical nature of stars and the cosmological distance scale is without equal in the history of astronomy. It is therefore ironic that worldwide it is possible to obtain an extensive education in astrometry only in St. Petersburg and Paris and in two years not one course in astrometry will be taught in the US. Who will ensure the astrometric quality control for the JWT, SIM, GAIA, LSST, to say nothing about the current large ground-based facilities, such as the VLT, Gemini, Keck, NOAO, Magellan, LBT, etc.?

We propose a renewal of astrometric education in the universities to prepare qualified scientists so that the scientific returns from the investment of billions of dollars in these unique facilities will be maximized. The funding agencies are providing outstanding facilities. The universities, national and international observatories and agencies should acknowledge their responsibility to hire qualified full-time astrometric scientists to teach students and to supervise existing and planned astronomical facilities so that quality data will be obtained and analyzed.

A temporary solution to this problem is proposed in the form of a series of international summer schools in Astrometry. The Michelson Science Center of the SIM project will hold an astrometry summer school in 2005 to begin this process. A one-semester syllabus is suggested as a means of meeting the needs of Astronomy by educating students in astrometric techniques that might be most valuable for careers associated with modern astrophysics.



Title:              Ground-based direct detection of close-in 
                    extra-solar planets with nulling and high order 
                    adaptive optics
Authors:            Langlois, M.; Burrows, A.; Hinz, P.
Affiliation:        AA(Laboratoire d'Astophysique de Marseille, 2 place 
                    Le Verrier, 13248 Marseille, France 
                    ), AB(Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA), AC(Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA) 

Publication:        Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 445, Issue 3, 
                    January III 2006, pp.1143-1149 (A&A Homepage)
Publication Date:   01/2006
Origin:             EDP
Keywords:           stars: planetary systems, instrumentation: 
                    interferometers, instrumentation: high angular 
                    resolution, instrumentation: adaptive optics
DOI:                10.1051/0004-6361:20042384
Bibliographic Code: 2006A&A...445.1143L

Abstract

Ground-based direct detection of extra-solar planets is very challenging due to high planet to star brightness contrasts. For giant close-in planets, such as have been discovered by the radial velocity method, closer than 0.1 AU, the reflected light is predicted to be fairly high yielding a contrast ratio ranging from 10-4 to 10-5 at near infra-red wavelengths. In this paper, we investigate direct detection of reflected light from such planets using nulling interferometry, and high-order adaptive optics in conjunction with large double aperture ground-based telescopes. In this configuration, at least 10-3 suppression of the entire stellar Airy pattern with small loss of planet flux as close as 0.03 arcsec is achievable. Distinguishing residual starlight from the planet signal is achieved by using the center of gravity shift method or multicolor differential imaging. Using these assumptions, we derive exposure times from a few minutes to several hours for direct detection of many of the known extra-solar planets with several short-baseline double aperture telescopes such as the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Keck Telescope.


Title:              Interferometry with the Large Binocular Telescope
Authors:            Herbst, T.
Publication:        Visions for Infrared Astronomy, Instrumentation, 
                    Mesure, Métrologie vol 6/1-4, 2006. Proc. of the 
                    Conference held in Paris, March 20-22, 2006. 
                    Publisher: Lavoisier, pp.263-269
Publication Date:   00/2006
Origin:             AUTHOR
Keywords:           large binocular telescope, interferometry, nulling, 
                    Fizeau. 
Bibliographic Code: 2006via..conf..263H

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) will soon be entering science operations. Designed as a flexible, multipurpose facility, the LBT will show its greatest strengths as an interferometer. This paper presents an update on the construction of the telescope, and explains the science and technology driving the two planned interferometric instruments.


Title:              NIR/Optical observations of the GOODS-S field . 
                    Tracing the mass assembly history of galaxies
Authors:            Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; De Santis, C.;
                    Salimbeni, S.; Nonino, M.; Giallongo, E.;
                    Gallozzi, S.; Menci, N.; Vanzella, E.; Cristiani, S.
Affiliation:        AA( INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via 
                    Frascati 33, I-0040 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy 
                    ), AB( INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-0040 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy ), AC( INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-0040 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy ), AD( INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-0040 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy ), AE(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste, Italy.!
 ), AF( INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-0040 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy ), AG( INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-0040 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy ), AH( INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-0040 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy ), AI(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste, Italy.), AJ(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste, Italy.) 

Publication:        Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana 
                    Supplement, v.9, p.301 (2006)
Publication Date:   00/2006
Origin:             MmSAI
Keywords:           Galaxies:distances and redshift, Galaxies: 
                    evolution, Galaxies: high redshift, Galaxies: 
                    photometry
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SAIt
Bibliographic Code: 2006MSAIS...9..301G

Abstract

The GOODS Survey (Great Observatory Origin Deep Survey) is providing unprecedented valuable data in the optical-NIR bands to investigate galaxies up to the extreme redshifts (z$,1$|(B7) over a relatively large area of the sky. The survey is the result of a combined effort of space observatories (HST, Spitzer) as well as ground based telescopes (Keck, VLT). Using this public dataset, and focusing in particular on the VLT data in the Chandra Deep Field South region, we have produced a high quality multicolor catalog (from the U to the Ks band) for $,1$|(B14000 galaxies over an area of 135 sq. arcmin, complete to both Z(AB)=26 and Ks(AB)=24 magnitudes. To optimally match the HST high resolution images with the ground-based ones, we have designed a software for high precision photometry (ConvPhot) and an SQL database to manage properly this Multi Wavelength Catalog. This survey will give a uniquely comprehensive history of galaxies, from early epochs to the relatively recent past: at this purpose, we are focusing the attention on the Distant Red Galaxy (DRG) population at z$,1$|(B1-3 to shed light on their still unclear nature and to avoid cosmic variance thanks to the large and deep area investigated. We will finally discuss how this work is useful to prepare future surveys with the LBC instrument at the LBT telescope.


Title:              STREGA@VST: Structure and Evolution of the Galaxy .
Authors:            Marconi, M.; Musella, I.; Ripepi, V.;
                    De Martino, D.; Silvotti, R.; Capaccioli, M.;
                    Cappellaro, E.; Cignoni, M.; Dall'Ora, M.;
                    Di Criscienzo, M.; Iodice, E.; Ruoppo, A.;
                    Bono, G.; Brocato, E.; Caputo, F.;
                    Carollo, D.; Castellani, M.; Castellani, V.;
                    Cioni, M. R.; Degli Innocenti, S.; Momany, Y.;
                    Monelli, M.; Piotto, G.; Prada Moroni, P. G.;
                    Raimondo, G.
Affiliation:        AA( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 
                    I-80131 Napoli, Italy 
                    ), AB( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli, Italy ), AC( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli, Italy ), AD( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli, Italy ), AE( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservat!
 orio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli, Italy ), AF( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli, Italy ; Università``Federico II'' di Napoli, Italy), AG( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli, Italy ), AH( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli, Italy ), AI( Istituto Nazi!
 onale di
 Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli, Italy ), AJ( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli, Italy ; Università``Tor Vergata'' di Roma, Italy), AK( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli, Italy ), AL( Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli, Italy ; Università``Federico II'' di Napoli, Italy), AM(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy), AN(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania - Teramo, Italy), AO(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy), AP(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Italy), AQ(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy), AR(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy), AS(Institute for Astronomy - Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, United Kingdom), AT(Universitàdi Pisa, Italy), AU(Universitàdi Padova, Italy), AV(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy), AW(Universitàdi Padova, Italy), AX(Universitàdi Pisa, Italy), AY(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania - Teramo, It!
 aly) 

Publication:        Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana 
                    Supplement, v.9, p.253 (2006)
Publication Date:   00/2006
Origin:             MmSAI
Keywords:           Stars: variables: RR Lyr, Stars: white dwarfs, 
                    Stars: cataclysmic variables, Galaxy: evolution, 
                    Galaxy: structure
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SAIt
Bibliographic Code: 2006MSAIS...9..253M

Abstract

In this article we present the survey STREGA, that has been proposed as part of the VST GTO (VLT Survey Telescope Guarantee Time of Observation) that will be given to the INAF-OAC in exchange for the construction of the telescope (see Alcalàet al., this volume). This survey will cover an area of about 150 sq. deg., searching for the southern portion of the Fornax stream, also allowing to study the properties of Disk and Halo White Dwarfs and interacting binaries in different fields at increasing galactic latitudes and to provide an ideal database for star counts and for the comparison with Galactic model predictions. The final aim is to constrain the structure and the evolutionary properties of the Milky Way. For the Fornax Stream this proposal is coordinated with a LBT Science Verification Pilot Project (P.I.: G. Bono).


Title:              Future prospects for AGN and galaxy surveys with the 
                    LBT Large Binocular Camera
Authors:            Grazian, A.
Affiliation:        Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte 
                    Porzio Catone, Italy 
                     

Publication:        Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana, v.77, 
                    p.720 (2006)
Publication Date:   00/2006
Origin:             MmSAI
Keywords:           Instrumentation: detectors, Telescopes, Surveys, 
                    quasars: general, Galaxies: high-redshift, 
                    Cosmology: observations
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2006: SAIt
Bibliographic Code: 2006MmSAI..77..720G

Abstract

The Large Binocular Camera (LBC) is a wide field of view instrument at the prime focus of the twin 8.4 meter Large Binocular Telescope. The Blue channel of LBC has been already installed at the telescope and the first light images have been successfully obtained on October 12th, 2005. LBC is able to provide faint images of the sky down to the level of the Hubble Deep Fields, but in an area that is 150 times larger. A number of high-quality scientific programs requiring extremely deep images in the near UV wavelength are highlighted, which become feasible with this powerful instrument.


Title:              High-resolution image reconstruction: the case of 
                    the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT)
Authors:            Bertero, M.; Anconelli, B.; Boccacci, P.;
                    Desiderà, G.; Carbillet, M.; Lanteri, H.
Affiliation:        AA(DISI $,1rs(B Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 35, 
                    16146 Genova, Italy), AB(DISI $,1rs(B Università di 
                    Genova, Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy), 
                    AC(DISI $,1rs(B Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 35, 
                    16146 Genova, Italy), AD(DISI $,1rs(B Università di 
                    Genova, Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy), 
                    AE(DISI $,1rs(B Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 35, 
                    16146 Genova, Italy), AF(LUAN $,1rs(B Université de Nice, 
                    UMR 6525, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 02, France)
Publication:        EAS Publications Series, Volume 22,  2006, pp.35-67
Publication Date:   00/2006
Origin:             EDP
DOI:                10.1051/eas:2006124
Bibliographic Code: 2006EAS....22...35B

Abstract

In this paper we give a survey of the methods we have developed for multiple image deconvolution, with application to the reconstruction of the images of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). We first describe the main features of LBT and of the Fizeau interferometer, denoted LINC-NIRVANA, that will be one of the basic instruments of the telescope. It will allow to reach the resolution of a 22.8 m mirror by combining different images taken with different orientations of the baseline. Next we discuss the problem of multiple image deconvolution, that is crucial for obtaining a unique high-resolution image from the multiple images provided by LINC-NIRVANA. We present the state-of-the art of the methods based on the Richardson-Lucy (RL) approach and we discuss topics such as computational efficiency, correction of boundary effects and super-resolution. Then, in the perspective of going beyond RL, we extend to the problem of multiple image deconvolution the split gradient method (SGM) that is a general approach to the design of iterative methods for the constrained minimization of regularized functionals. Finally we present an application of SGM to the regularized reconstruction of objects with high-dynamic range. The different methods are illustrated with examples taken from the many numerical experiments we performed on this problem.


Title:              Development of relative thermal stress index (RTSI) 
                    for Monitoring and Management of Dry Deciduous 
                    Ecosystem
Authors:            Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.
Publication:        36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly. Held 16 - 23 July 
                    2006, in Beijing, China.  Meeting abstract from the 
                    CDROM, #295
Publication Date:   00/2006
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2006cosp...36..295G

Abstract

Gir wildlife sanctuary located between 20 r 57 to 21 r 20 N and 70 r 28 to 71 r 13 E is the last home of Asiatic lions Its biodiversity comprises of 450 recorded flowering plant species 32 species of mammals 26 species of reptiles about 300 species of birds and more than 2000 species of insects As per 1995 census it has 304 lions and 268 leopards The movement of wildlife to thermally comfortable zones to reduce stress conditions forces the changes in management plan with reference to change in localized water demand This necessitates the use of space based thermal data available from AVHRR MODIS etc to monitor temperature of Gir-ecosystem for meso-scale level operational utility As the time scale of the variability of NDVI parameter is much higher than that for lower boundary temperature LBT the dense patch in riverine forest having highest NDVI value would not experience change in its vigour with the change in the season NDVI value of such patch would be near invariant over the year and temperature of this pixel could serve as reference temperature for developing the concept of relative thermal stress index RTSI which is defined as RTSI T p -T r T max -T r wherein T r T max and T p refer to LBT over the maximum NDVI reference point maximum LBT observed in the Gir ecosystem and the temperature of the pixel in the image respectively RTSI images were computed from AVHRR images for post-monsoon leaf-shedded and summer seasons Scatter plot between RTSI and NDVI for summer seasons


Title:              High-Resolution with Large Ground-Based Optical/IR 
                    Telescopes
Authors:            Wittkowski, M.; Glindemann, A.; Paresce, F.
Publication:        Future Directions in High Resolution Astronomy:  The 
                    10th Anniversary of the VLBA, ASP Conference 
                    Proceedings, Vol. 340. Edited by J. Romney and M. 
                    Reid.  San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the 
                    Pacific, 2005., p.626
Publication Date:   12/2005
Origin:             ASP
Bibliographic Code: 2005ASPC..340..626G

Abstract

The Keck Interferometer on Mauna Kea and ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) on Cerro Paranal (2635 m) in Northern Chile both saw first fringes in 2001. In the meantime, MIDI, the mid-infrared science instrument of the VLTI, also had first fringes. Using the VLTI test siderostats and the VLTI near-infrared commissioning instrument VINCI, 300 hours of shared-risk science programs were executed. A few years from now, the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona will be the third large telescope interferometer, providing a large field of view by using a Fizeau beam combination. Here, we compare the general concepts of these three interferometers, and describe the VLTI in detail discussing the layout of the interferometer, its current status, and the general philosophy as a facility observatory.


Title:              Reconstruction of aperture-synthesis images from LBT 
                    LINC-NIRVANA data using the Richardson-Lucy and 
                    space-variant Building Block method
Authors:            Hofmann, K.-H.; Driebe, T.; Heininger, M.;
                    Schertl, D.; Weigelt, G.
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), 
                    Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany 
                    ), AB(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany), AC(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany), AD(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany), AE(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany) 

Publication:        Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 444, Issue 3, 
                    December IV 2005, pp.983-993 (A&A Homepage)
Publication Date:   12/2005
Origin:             EDP
Keywords:           instrumentation: interferometers, instrumentation: 
                    high angular resolution, techniques: image 
                    processing, techniques: high angular resolution, 
                    techniques: miscellaneous
DOI:                10.1051/0004-6361:20053480
Bibliographic Code: 2005A&A...444..983H

Abstract

We present a new method, the regularized and space-variant Building Block method, which is able to reconstruct diffraction-limited aperture-synthesis images from Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) LINC-NIRVANA data. Images with the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.8 m single-dish telescope can be derived if raw images are taken at several different hour angles. We simulated computer-generated and laboratory LBT interferograms that are similar to the data which can be obtained with the LINC-NIRVANA beam combiner instrument. From the simulated data, diffraction-limited images were reconstructed with the regularized Building Block method, which is an extension of the Building Block method (Hofmann & Weigelt 1993, A&A, 278, 328). We compare the Building Block reconstructions to images obtained with the Richardson-Lucy (RL) method (Richardson 1972, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 62, 55; Lucy 1974, AJ, 79, 745) and the Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method (Hudson & Larkin 1994, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., 13, 601; Bertero & Boccacci 2000, A&AS, 144, 181). Our image reconstruction studies were performed with computer-simulated J-band and laboratory H-band raw data of a galaxy with simulated total magnitudes of J = 16m to 18m and H = 16m to 19^m, respectively. One of the faintest structures in the images has a brightness of J $,1$|(B 25^m. The simulated reference stars within the isoplanatic patch have magnitudes of J = 20^m{-}21m and H = 19^m. All three methods are able to reconstruct diffraction-limited images with almost the same quality. Furthermore, raw data with space-variant point spread functions were simulated, and diffraction-limited images were reconstructed using the space-variant version of the Building Block method.


Title:              Signatures of Planets in Spatially Resolved Debris 
                    Disks
Authors:            Moro-Martin, Amaya
Publication:        Proceedings of the Miniworkshop on Nearby Resolved 
                    Debris Disks. October 19-20, 2005. Space Telescope 
                    Science Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA.  Edited by 
                    Inga Kamp, Margaret Meixner, p.26
Publication Date:   10/2005
Origin:             AUTHOR
Bibliographic Code: 2005nrdd.conf...26M

Abstract

The presence of debris disks around many main sequence stars indicate that plantesimal formation is a common by-product of the star formation process. In systems where massive planets are located interior to the dust-producing planetesimal region, the gravitational interaction of the dust particles with the planet can create structure in the dust disk. Because this structure is sensitive to long period planets, complementing a parameter space not covered by radial velocity and transit surveys, its study can help us learn about the diversity of planetary systems. In anticipation of future high-resolution high-sensitivity observations of spatially resolved debris disks with e.g. ALMA, LBT, SAFIR, TPF and JWST, we numerically calculate the 3-D equilibrium spatial density distributions of dust disks originated by a belt of planetesimals similar to the Kuiper Belt (KB) in the presence of interior giant planets in different planetary configurations (with planet masses ranging from 1-10 MJup in circular orbits with semimajor axis between 1-30 AU). For each of these modeled disks we use a 3-D radiative transfer code to obtain their brightness density distributions at different wavelengths that will help us to interpret future observations of these dusty ``fingerprints'' in terms of planetary architecture.


Title:              The Future of Astrometric Education
Authors:            van Altena, W.; Stavinschi, M.
Publication:        Astrometry in the Age of the Next Generation of 
                    Large Telescopes, ASP Conference Series, Vol. 338, 
                    Proceedings of a meeting held 18-20 October 2004 at 
                    Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. Edited 
                    by P. Kenneth Seidelmann and Alice K. B. Monet.  San 
                    Francisco:  Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 
                    2005., p.311
Publication Date:   10/2005
Origin:             ASP
Bibliographic Code: 2005ASPC..338..311V

Abstract

Astrometry is poised to enter an era of unparalleled growth and relevance due to the wealth of highly accurate data expected from the SIM and GAIA space missions. Innovative ground-based telescopes, such as the LSST, are planned which will provide less precise data, but for many more stars. The potential for studies of the structure, kinematics and dynamics of our Galaxy as well as for the physical nature of stars and the cosmological distance scale is without equal in the history of astronomy. It is therefore ironic that in two years not one course in astrometry will be taught in the US, leaving all astrometric education to Europe, China and Latin America. Who will ensure the astrometric quality control for the JWT, SIM, GAIA, LSST, to say nothing about the current large ground-based facilities, such as the VLT, Gemini, Keck, NOAO, Magellan, LBT, etc.? Hipparcos and the HST were astrometric successes due only to the dedicated work of specialists in astrometry who fought to maintain the astrometric characteristics of those satellites and their data pipelines.

We propose a renewal of astrometric education in the universities to prepare qualified scientists so that the scientific returns from the investment of billions of dollars in these unique facilities will be maximized. The funding agencies are providing outstanding facilities. The universities, national and international observatories and agencies should acknowledge their responsibility to hire qualified full-time astrometric scientists to teach students, and to supervise existing and planned astronomical facilities so that quality data will be obtained and analyzed.

A temporary solution to this problem is proposed in the form of a series of international summer schools in Astrometry. The Michelson Science Center of the SIM project has offered to hold an astrometry summer school in 2005 to begin this process. A one-semester syllabus is suggested as a means of meeting the needs of Astronomy by educating students in astrometric techniques that might be most valuable for careers associated with modern astrophysics.



Title:              T-spheres as a limit of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi 
                    solutions
Authors:            Zaslavskii, O. B.
Publication:        eprint arXiv:gr-qc/0509043
Publication Date:   09/2005
Origin:             ARXIV
Comment:            6 pages. 1 Reference added. To appear in Phys. Rev. 
                    D; Phys.Rev. D72 (2005) 067501
Bibliographic Code: 2005gr.qc.....9043Z

Abstract

In the Tolman model there exist two quite different branches of solutions - generic Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) ones and T-spheres as a special case. We show that, nonetheless, T-spheres can be obtained as a limit of the class of LTB solutions having no origin and extending to infinity with the areal radius approaching constant. It is shown that all singularities of T-models are inherited from those of corresponding LBT solutions. In doing so, the disc type singularity of a T-sphere is the analog of shell-crossing.


Title:              Nulling interferometry and adaptive optics control 
                    system optimization
Authors:            Ferrario, Damien; Wildi, François
Affiliation:        AA(West Switzerland Univ. of Applied Sciences 
                    (Switzerland)), AB(West Switzerland Univ. of Applied 
                    Sciences (Switzerland) and Steward Observatory 
                    (USA))
Publication:        Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of 
                    Exoplanets II.  Edited by Coulter, Daniel R.    
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5905, pp. 237-248 
                    (2005). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   08/2005
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2005: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.617850
Bibliographic Code: 2005SPIE.5905..237F

Abstract

We present a study of the LBT nulling interferometer (LBTI) performance considered from the control systems point of view. Focusing first on the fast path length corrector controller within the LBTI, we show that a simple modification of the controller algorithm reduces the modal tracking error by 50% or more depending on the system dynamics. WE show that this translates into a null depth improvement by a factor larger than 5. Next, we consider coupling the LBTI real-time controller to that of the AO to take advantage of the high order information that is available on the LBTI phase sensor and we show that here again, the global performance can be improved, albeit more modestly by 20%-30%.


Title:              The Fringe and Flexure Tracking System for the LBT 
                    interferometric camera LINC-NIRVANA.
Authors:            Bertram, T.; Straubmeier, C.; Rost, S.; Eckart, A.
Publication:        Astron. Nachr., 326, 560-561 (2005) (AN Homepage)
Publication Date:   08/2005
Origin:             SIMBAD
Bibliographic Code: 2005AN....326..560B

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              PMAS: The Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer. 
                    I. Design, Manufacture, and Performance
Authors:            Roth, Martin M.; Kelz, Andreas;
                    Fechner, Thomas; Hahn, Thomas;
                    Bauer, Svend-Marian; Becker, Thomas;
                    Böhm, Petra; Christensen, Lise; Dionies, Frank;
                    Paschke, Jens; Popow, Emil; Wolter, Dieter;
                    Schmoll, Jürgen; Laux, Uwe; Altmann, Werner
Affiliation:        AA(Visiting Astronomer, German-Spanish Astronomical 
                    Centre, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the 
                    Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, with 
                    the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.; 
                    Visiting Astronomer, Special Astrophysical 
                    Observatory, Selentchuk, Russia.), AB(Visiting 
                    Astronomer, German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, 
                    Calar Alto, jointly operated by the 
                    Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, with 
                    the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.), 
                    AC(), AD(), AE(), AF(Visiting Astronomer, 
                    German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, 
                    jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institute for 
                    Astronomy, Heidelberg, with the Spanish National 
                    Commission for Astronomy.; Visiting Astronomer, 
                    Special Astrophysical Observatory, Selentchuk, 
                    Russia.), AG(Visiting Astronomer, German-Spanish 
                    Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, jointly operated by 
                    the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, 
                    with the Spanish National Commission for 
                    Astronomy.), AH(Visiting Astronomer, German-Spanish 
                    Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, jointly operated by 
                    the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, 
                    with the Spanish National Commission for 
                    Astronomy.), AI(Astrophysikalisches Institut 
                    Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, 
                    Germany; 
                    ), AJ(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany; ), AK(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany; ), AL(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany; ), AM(Astronomical Instrument Group, Department of Physics, University of Durham, Rochester Building, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK), AN(Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwar!
 te 5, Tautenburg D-07778, Germany), AO(Konstruktionsbüro Altmann, Passau, Germany) 

Publication:        The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the 
                    Pacific, Volume 117, Issue 832, pp. 620-642. (PASP 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   06/2005
Origin:             UCP
PASP Keywords:      Instrumentation: Spectrographs, Techniques: 
                    Spectroscopic
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2005: The Astronomical Society of the Pacific
DOI:                10.1086/429877
Bibliographic Code: 2005PASP..117..620R

Abstract

We describe the design, manufacture, commissioning, and performance of PMAS, the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer. PMAS is a dedicated integral field spectrophotometer optimized to cover the optical wavelength regime of 0.35-1 $,1'<(Bm. It is based on the lens array-fiber bundle principle of operation. The instrument employs an all-refractive fiber spectrograph, built with CaF2 optics, to provide good transmission and high image quality over the entire nominal wavelength range. A set of user-selectable reflective gratings provides low to medium spectral resolution of approximately 1.5, 3.2, and 7 Å in first order, depending on the groove density (1200, 600, 300 grooves mm-1). While the standard integral field unit (IFU) uses a 16×16 element lens array, which provides seeing-limited sampling in a relatively small field of view (FOV) in one of three magnifications (8" × 8", 12" × 12", or 16" × 16"), a recently retrofitted bare fiber bundle IFU (PPak: PMAS fiber pack) expands the FOV to a hexagonal area with a footprint of 65" × 74". Other special features include a cryogenic CCD camera for field acquisition and guiding, a nod-shuffle mode for beam switching and improved sky background subtraction, and a scanning Fabry-Pérot etalon in combination with the standard IFU (PYTHEAS mode). PMAS was initially designed and built as an experimental traveling instrument with optical interfaces to various telescopes (Calar Alto 3.5 m, ESO VLT, LBT). It is offered as a common-user instrument at Calar Alto under contract to MPIA Heidelberg since 2002.


Title:              Restoration of interferometric images. III. 
                    Efficient Richardson-Lucy methods for LINC-NIRVANA 
                    data reduction
Authors:            Anconelli, B.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.;
                    Carbillet, M.; Lanteri, H.
Affiliation:        AA(INFM and DISI, Universitàdi Genova, via 
                    Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy), AB(INFM and 
                    DISI, Universitàdi Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 
                    Genova, Italy 
                    ), AC(INFM and DISI, Universitàdi Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova, Italy), AD(Laboratoire Universitaire d'Astrophysique de Nice, UMR 6525, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 02, France), AE(Laboratoire Universitaire d'Astrophysique de Nice, UMR 6525, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 02, France) 

Publication:        Astronomy and Astrophysics, v.430, p.731-738 (2005) 
                    (A&A Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2005
Origin:             A&A
A&A Keywords:       techniques: image processing, techniques: 
                    interferometric
DOI:                10.1051/0004-6361:20041493
Bibliographic Code: 2005A&A...430..731A

Abstract

In previous papers we proposed methods and software for the restoration of images provided by Fizeau interferometers such as LINC-NIRVANA (LN), the German-Italian beam combiner for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). It will provide multiple images of the same target corresponding to different orientations of the baseline. Therefore LN will require routinely the use of multiple-image deconvolution methods in order to produce a unique high-resolution image. As a consequence of the complexity of astronomical images, two kinds of methods will be required: first a quick-look method, namely a method that is computationally efficient, allowing a rapid overview and identification of the object being observed; second an ad hoc method designed for that particular object and as accurate as possible. In this paper we investigate the possibility of using Richardson-Lucy-like (RL-like) methods, namely methods designed for the maximization of the likelihood function in the case of Poisson noise, as possible quick-look methods. To this purpose we propose new techniques for accelerating the Ordered Subsets - Expectation Maximization (OS-EM) method, investigated in our previous papers; moreover, we analyze approaches based on the fusion of the multiple images into a single one, so that one can use single-image deconvolution methods which are presumably more efficient than the multiple-image ones. The results are encouraging and all the methods proposed in this paper have been implemented in our software package AIRY.


Title:              PEPSI, the High-Resolution Optical-IR Spectrograph 
                    for the LBT
Authors:            Andersen, Michael; Strassmeier, Klaus;
                    Hoffman, Axel; Woche, Manfred; Spano, Paolo
Publication:        High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy in Astronomy, 
                    Proceedings of an ESO Workshop held at Garching, 
                    Germany, 18-21 November 2003.  Edited by H.U. Käufl, 
                    R. Siebenmorgen, and A. Moorwood.  Garching, 
                    Germany, 2005., pp. 57-61
Publication Date:   00/2005
Origin:             AUTHOR
DOI:                10.1007/10995082_7
Bibliographic Code: 2005hris.conf...57A

Abstract

PEPSI is a high resolution fibre feed optical-IR polarimetric echelle spectrograph for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). PEPSI utilizes the two 8.4m LBT apertures to simultaneously record four polarization states at a resolution of 120.000. The extension of the coverage towards the IR is mainly motivated by the larger Zeeman splitting of IR lines, which would allow to study weaker/fainter magnetic structures on stars. The two optical arms, which also have an integral light mode with R up to 300.000, are under construction, while the IR arm is being designed.


Title:              A Web-based Clearing-house for Community Telescope 
                    Information and Access
Authors:            Garmany, C. D.; Boroson, T. A.
Affiliation:        AA(NOAO), AB(NOAO)
Publication:        American Astronomical Society Meeting 205, #48.08; 
                    Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 
                    36, p.1416
Publication Date:   12/2004
Origin:             AAS
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: American Astronomical Society
Bibliographic Code: 2004AAS...205.4808G

Abstract

Where can one find information on all available community telescopes and their instrumentation? With the growth of a very diverse set of ground-based O/IR telescopes and instruments there is an increasing need for corresponding information on these facilities, as has been pointed out by the 2nd community workshop on the ground-based O/IR system (May 2004). In response, NOAO has agreed to develop a web site for the community that summarizes all publicly available observing opportunities and acts as a clearing -house for information.

While much of the information is currently available on the web, it requires consolidation. Observing opportunities include not only those scheduled through NOAO, but other facilities as well. In particular, PREST (Program for Research and Education with Small Telescopes), a new NSF initiative, will provide community access to smaller (< 2.5 m) telescopes . We envision a web site that includes NOAO facilities, the TSIP program (which provides public time on Keck, HET, MMT, Magellan, LBT), and other telescopes giving public access through NOAO: WIYN, SOAR, SMARTS. Facilities that provide public access but not through NOAO, will also be included. The site should include time available, how and when to apply, instrument and detector capabilities, selection criteria, typical weather, lodging accommodations, and technical assistance or training available at the telescope. Also, feedback from observers on the performance of the facilities will be made available to potential proposers.

As we develop this site, we welcome input from the astronomical community on how to make it most useful to astronomers.



Title:              The fringe and flexure tracking system for 
                    LINC-NIRVANA: basic design and principle of 
                    operation
Authors:            Straubmeier, Christian; Bertram, Thomas;
                    Eckart, Andreas; Wang, Yibing; Zealouk, Lahbib;
                    Herbst, Thomas M.; Andersen, David R.;
                    Ragazzoni, Roberto; Weigelt, Gerd P.
Publication:        New Frontiers in Stellar Interferometry, Proceedings 
                    of SPIE Volume 5491.  Edited by Wesley A. Traub. 
                    Bellingham, WA: The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering, 2004., p.1486 (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5491.1486S

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is the interferometric near-infrared imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Operating at JHK bands LINC-NIRVANA will provide an unique and unprecedented combination of high angular resolution (~9 milliarcseconds at 1.25 $,1'<(Bm), wide field of view (~100 arcseconds2 at 1.25 $,1'<(Bm), and large collecting area (~100 m2). One of the major contributions of the I. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne to this project is the development of the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS). In close cooperation with the Adaptive Optics systems of LINC-NIRVANA the FFTS is a fundamental component to ensure a complete and time-stable wavefront correction at the position of the science detector in order to allow for long integration times at interferometric angular resolutions. Using a dedicated near-infrared detector array at a combined focus close to the science detector, the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System analyses the interferometric point spread function (PSF) of a suitably bright reference source at frame rates of several hundred Hertz up to 1 kHz. By fitting a parameterized theoretical model PSF to the preprocessed image-data the FFTS determines the amount of pistonic phase difference and the amount of an angular misalignment between the wavefronts of the two optical paths of LINC-NIRVANA. For every exposure the correcting parameters are derived in real-time and transmitted to the respective control electronics, or the Adaptive Optics systems of the single-eye telescopes, which will adjust their optical elements accordingly. In this paper we present the opto-mechanical hardware design, the principle of operation of the software control algorithms, and the results of first numerical simulations and laboratory experiments of the performance of this Fringe and Flexure Tracking System.


Title:              The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system: 
                    differential piston simulation and detection
Authors:            Bertram, Thomas; Andersen, David R.;
                    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Straubmeier, Christian;
                    Eckart, Andreas; Beckmann, Udo; Herbst, Thomas M.
Publication:        New Frontiers in Stellar Interferometry, Proceedings 
                    of SPIE Volume 5491.  Edited by Wesley A. Traub. 
                    Bellingham, WA: The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering, 2004., p.1454 (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5491.1454B

Abstract

The correction of atmospherical differential piston and instrumental flexure effects is mandatory for full interferometric performance of the LBT NIR interferometric imaging camera LINC-NIRVANA. This is the task of the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS), which is part of the contribution of the I. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne to the project. Differential piston and flexure effects will be detected and corrected in a real-time closed loop by analyzing the PSF of a guide star at a frequency of up to several hundred Hz. Numerous critical design parameters for both FFTS hardware and control loop have to be derived from simulations. Detailed knowledge of the special shape of the LBT interferometric PSF as a function of a variety of parameters is required to design the fringe tracking control loop. In this paper we will show the results of our software that allows us to generate polychromatic interferometric PSFs for a number of different scenarios. Our fringe detection algorithm is based on an analytic model which is fitted to the acquired PSF. We present the results of the evaluation of the algorithm in terms of speed and residual piston, as well as the first successful implementation of the algorithm in a closed loop system. Simulations of the time evolution of differential piston have been performed in order to investigate necessary correction frequencies and the variation of differential piston across the usable field of view. These simulations are based on the Layer Oriented Adaptive Optics performance simulator "LOST" of the Osservatorio Astriofisico di Arcetri.


Title:              The fringe and flexure tracking detector of the LBT 
                    LINC-NIRVANA beam-combiner instrument
Authors:            Beckmann, Udo; Behrend, Jan;
                    Bohnhardt, Hermann; Connot, Claus;
                    Driebe, Thomas M.; Heininger, Matthias;
                    Herbst, Thomas M.; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz;
                    Nussbaum, Edmund; Schertl, Dieter;
                    Solscheid, Walter; Straubmeier, Christian;
                    Weigelt, Gerd P.
Publication:        New Frontiers in Stellar Interferometry, Proceedings 
                    of SPIE Volume 5491.  Edited by Wesley A. Traub. 
                    Bellingham, WA: The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering, 2004., p.1445 (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5491.1445B

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is a near-infrared (1-2.4 micron) beam-combiner instrument for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). LINC-NIRVANA is being built by a consortium of groups at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie in Heidelberg, the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri in Florence, the Universitat zu Koln, and the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie in Bonn. The MPI fur Radioastronomie is responsible for the near-infrared detector for the fringe and flexure tracking system (FFTS). We describe the design and construction of the detector control electronics as well as the first laboratory measurements of performance parameters of the NIR detector for the fringe and flexure tracking system of the LBT LINC-NIRVANA instrument. This detector has to record LBT interferograms of suitable reference stars in the FOV at a frame rate of the order of 200 frames per second using, for example, 32 × 32-pixel subframes. Moreover, special noise reduction techniques have to be applied. The fringe-tracker interferograms are required for monitoring and closed-loop correction of the atmospheric optical path difference of the two LBT wavefronts (see C. Straubmeier et al., "A fringe and flexure tracking system for LINC-NIRVANA: basic design and principle of operation"). We will describe our laboratory measurements of maximum frame rate, readout noise, photometric stability, and other important parameters together with first measurements of laboratory simulations of LBT interferograms.


Title:              Deconvolution methods for LINC/NIRVANA data 
                    reduction
Authors:            Anconelli, Barbara; Bertero, Mario;
                    Boccacci, Patrizia; Carbillet, Marcel;
                    Lanteri, Henri; Correia, Serge
Publication:        New Frontiers in Stellar Interferometry, Proceedings 
                    of SPIE Volume 5491.  Edited by Wesley A. Traub. 
                    Bellingham, WA: The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering, 2004., p.932 (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5491..932A

Abstract

LINC/NIRVANA (LN) is the German-Italian beam combiner for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). It is a Fizeau interferometer and it will provide multiple images of the same target corresponding to different orientations of the baseline. For each one of these images the resolution is not uniform over the field since it is the resolution of a 22.8m mirror in the direction of the baseline and that of a 8.4m mirror in the orthogonal one. Therefore a unique high-resolution image can only be obtained by means of deconvolution methods. Four-years ongoing work of our group on this problem has already clarified the effects of partial adaptive optics corrections and partial coverage of the u,v plane and has produced the Software Package AIRY, a set of modules IDL-based and CAOS-compatible, which can be used for simulation and/or deconvolution of multiple images from the LBT instrument LN. In this paper we present a general approach to the design of methods for the simultaneous deconvolution of multiple images of the same object. These can include both quick-look methods, to be used for routinely process LN images, and ad-hoc methods for specific classes of astronomical objects. We describe several examples of these methods whose implementation and validation is in progress. Finally we present the last version of the Software Package AIRY.


Title:              Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer: the 
                    universal beam combiner
Authors:            Hinz, Philip M.; Connors, Tom; McMahon, Tom;
                    Cheng, Andrew; Peng, Chien Y.;
                    Hoffmann, William; McCarthy, Donald, Jr.;
                    Angel, Roger
Publication:        New Frontiers in Stellar Interferometry, Proceedings 
                    of SPIE Volume 5491.  Edited by Wesley A. Traub. 
                    Bellingham, WA: The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering, 2004., p.787 (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5491..787H

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope with its single mount design and adaptive optics integrated into the secondary mirrors, provides a unique platform for mid-infrared interferometry. The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer is designed to take advantage of this platform, specifically for extrasolar planet detection in preparation for the Terrestrial Planet Finder mission. The instrument consists of three components: a general purpose or Universal Beam Combiner (UBC) which preserves the sine condition of the array, a nulling interferometer for the LBT (NIL) to overlap the two beams and sense phase variations, and a nulling-optimized mid-infrared camera (NOMIC) for detection of the final images. Here we focus on the design and tolerancing of the UBC. The components of the system are currently being fabricated and the instrument is planned to be integrated with the LBT in 2006.


Title:              Interferometry on the Large Binocular Telescope
Authors:            Herbst, Thomas M.; Hinz, Philip M.
Publication:        New Frontiers in Stellar Interferometry, Proceedings 
                    of SPIE Volume 5491.  Edited by Wesley A. Traub. 
                    Bellingham, WA: The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering, 2004., p.383 (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5491..383H

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) will be a unique interferometric facility when it is completed in 2005. The telescope incorporates two, 8.4-meter diameter primary mirrors on a single mounting. With 14.4 meter center-to-center spacing, this interferometer provides the equivalent collecting area of a 12-meter telescope, and, depending on the beam combination scheme, the spatial resolution of a 14.4 or 22.8-meter telescope. We report on the status of two initial interferometric instruments planned for the LBT. A group based at the University of Arizona is constructing LBTI, a thermal infrared beam combiner focusing on nulling, but allowing thermal imaging as well. This instrument will search for and measure zodiacal light in candidate stellar systems in preparation for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and Darwin missions. There is also a program to search for young Jupiters. A second group, based in Heidelberg, Arcetri, Cologne, and Bonn, is building LINC-NIRVANA, a near-infrared Fizeau-mode beam combiner with multi-conjugated adaptive optics (MCAO). Fizeau interferometry preserves phase information and allows true imagery over a wide field of view. Using state-of-the-art detector arrays, coupled with advanced atmospheric correction strategies, LINC-NIRVANA will enable a broad variety of scientific programs that require the ultimate in sensitivity, field-of-view, and spatial resolution.


Title:              LBT adaptive secondary units construction: a 
                    progress report
Authors:            Gallieni, Daniele; Anaclerio, Vincenzo;
                    Ripamonti, Angelo; Biasi, Roberto;
                    Andrighettoni, Mario; Veronese, Daniele;
                    Ponzo, Walter
Affiliation:        AA(ADS International Srl (Italy)), AB(ADS 
                    International Srl (Italy)), AC(ADS International Srl 
                    (Italy)), AD(MICROGATE Srl (Italy)), AE(MICROGATE 
                    Srl (Italy)), AF(MICROGATE Srl (Italy)), 
                    AG(MICROGATE Srl (Italy))
Publication:        Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico 
                    B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto 
                    Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 
                    1600-1605 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.553191
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5490.1600G

Abstract

The two 911mm-diameter adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) are in an advanced construction phase. We present here the general layout of the two units and the relevant steps of their construction, in particular the mechanics and the control electronics.


Title:              The adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large 
                    Binocular Telescope: a progress report
Authors:            Riccardi, Armando; Brusa, Guido;
                    Xompero, Marco; Zanotti, Daniela;
                    Del Vecchio, Ciro; Salinari, Piero;
                    Ranfagni, Piero; Gallieni, Daniele;
                    Biasi, Roberto; Andrighettoni, Mario;
                    Miller, Steve; Mantegazza, Paolo
Affiliation:        AA(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AB(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona 
                    (USA)), AC(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AD(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AE(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico 
                    di Arcetri (Italy)), AF(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), AG(INAF, 
                    Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), AH(ADS 
                    International Srl (Italy)), AI(MICROGATE Srl 
                    (Italy)), AJ(MICROGATE Srl (Italy)), AK(Steward 
                    Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), AL(Politecnico 
                    di Milano (Italy))
Publication:        Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico 
                    B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto 
                    Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 
                    1564-1571 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.551578
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5490.1564R

Abstract

The two 911mm-diameter adaptive secondary (AS) mirrors for the Large Binocular telescope (LBT) are currently under manufacturing process. Each unit has 672 electro-magnetic force actuators. They control the figure of the Gregorian secondary 1.6mm-thick mirrors with an internal loop using the signal of co-located capacitive sensors. The obtained computational power of the on-board control electronics allows to use it as real-time computer for wavefront reconstruction. We present the progress in manufacturing and assembling of the first telescope unit, the progress in software production, the status of the testing facilities and an update on the latest modification of the design.


Title:              Dedicated flexible electronics for adaptive 
                    secondary control
Authors:            Biasi, Roberto; Andrighettoni, Mario;
                    Riccardi, Armando; Biliotti, Valdemaro;
                    Fini, Luca; Mantegazza, Paolo; Gallieni, Daniele
Affiliation:        AA(MICROGATE Srl (Italy)), AB(MICROGATE Srl 
                    (Italy)), AC(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AD(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico 
                    di Arcetri (Italy)), AE(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), AF(Politecnico di 
                    Milano (Italy)), AG(ADS International Srl (Italy))
Publication:        Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico 
                    B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto 
                    Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 
                    1502-1513 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.553181
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5490.1502B

Abstract

In the frame of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) adaptive secondary project, we developed a new dedicated electronics that controls the thin shell by means of 672 force actuators and capacitive sensor, while performing also the Real Time Reconstructor (RTR) computations. Within the adaptive optics system, the Slope Computer is also implemented using the same electronics, directly interfaced to the wavefront sensor CCD output by means of built-in fast parallel I/O channels. The system design has been tailored to balance the computational power, in the range of hundreds of Gigaflops, with an effective and time-deterministic real-time communication scheme. Diagnostic and maintenance are performed through an additional, fully independent communication line. Modularity, flexibility and remote in-system reconfigurability make this compact electronic suitable for real time adaptive optics control systems within a wide range of size and complexity, up to several thousands of actuators. In this paper we describe the general hardware and software architecture and the application results of this electronics within the LBT first light adaptive optics system.


Title:              Off-the-shelf real-time computers for 
                    next-generation adaptive optics
Authors:            Hippler, Stefan; Looze, Douglas P.;
                    Gaessler, Wolfgang
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AB(Univ. of Massachusetts/Amherst (USA)), 
                    AC(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany))
Publication:        Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico 
                    B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto 
                    Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 
                    1402-1413 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.550036
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5490.1402H

Abstract

The performance of adaptive optics systems for existing as well as future giant telescopes heavily depends on the number of active wavefront compensating elements, the spatial, and the temporal sampling of the distorted incoming wavefront. In a phase-A study for an extreme adaptive optics system for the VLT (CHEOPS) as well as for LINC-NIRVANA a fizeau interferometer aboard LBT with a multi-conjugated adaptive optics system, we investigate how today's off-the-shelf computers compare in terms of floating point computing power, memory bandwidth, input/output bandwidth and real-time behavior. We address questions like how level three cache can impact the memory bandwidth, what matrix-vector multiplication performance is achievable, and what can we learn from standard benchmarks running on different architectures.


Title:              LINC-NIRVANA: mechanical challanges of the MCAO 
                    wavefront sensor
Authors:            Soci, Roberto; Ragazzoni, Roberto;
                    Herbst, Thomas M.; Farinato, Jacopo;
                    Gaessler, Wolfgang; Baumeister, Harald;
                    Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Diolaiti, Emiliano;
                    Xu, Wenli; Andersen, David R.;
                    Egner, Sebastian E.; Arcidiacono, Carmelo;
                    Lombini, Matteo; Ebert, Monica; Boehm, Armin;
                    Muench, Norbert; Xompero, Marco
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AB(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AC(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AD(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AE(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AF(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AG(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AH(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AI(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AJ(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AK(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AL(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), AM(INAF, 
                    Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AN(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AO(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AP(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AQ(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy))
Publication:        Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico 
                    B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto 
                    Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 
                    1286-1295 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.551674
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5490.1286S

Abstract

Several multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems using the layer-oriented approach are under construction and will soon be tested at different facilities in several instruments. One of these instruments is LINC-NIRVANA, a Fizeau interferometer for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). This instrument uses a ground layer wavefront sensor (GWS) and a combined mid-high layer wavefront sensor (MHWS) with different fields of view (concept of multiple field of view), a 2-6 arcmin annular ring for the GWS and a 2 arcmin diameter central field of view for the MHWS. Both sensors are Pyramid wavefront sensors which optically co-add light from multiple natural guide stars. The opto-mechanical problems concerning these sensors are related to the fast focal ratio of the beam on the pyramids coupled with the available pixelscale of detectors. This leads to very tight requirements on the moving systems (linear stages) for the star enlargers (SE) used to pick off the light of individual stars. As there are 40 star enlargers in the overall system, additional efforts were put into the alignment system of the optics of the star enlargers and the reduction in size of the star enlargers to minimize the distance between available guide stars.


Title:              LINC-NIRVANA: the single arm MCAO experiment
Authors:            Egner, Sebastian E.; Gaessler, Wolfgang;
                    Herbst, Tom M.; Ragazzoni, Roberto;
                    Stuik, Remko; Andersen, D. A.; Arcidiacono, C.;
                    Baumeister, H.; Beckmann, U.; Behrend, J.;
                    Bertram, T.; Bizenberger, P.; Boehnhardt, H.;
                    Diolaiti, E.; Driebe, T.; Eckhardt, A.;
                    Farinato, J.; Kuerster, M.; Laun, W.;
                    Ligori, S.; Naranjo, Vianak; Nußbaum, E.;
                    Rix, H.-W.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Salinari, Piero;
                    Soci, R.; Straubmeier, C.; Vernet-Viard, E.;
                    Weigelt, Gerd P.; Weiss, R.; Xu, W.
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AB(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AC(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AD(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany) and 
                    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AE(Leiden Observatory (Netherlands)), 
                    AF(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AG(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AH(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AI(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    Radioastronomie (Germany)), AJ(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Radioastronomie (Germany)), AK(Univ. zu Koln 
                    (Germany)), AL(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AM(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AN(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AO(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AP(Univ. zu Koln (Germany)), 
                    AQ(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AR(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AS(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AT(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AU(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AV(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    Radioastronomie (Germany)), AW(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Astronomie (Germany)), AX(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Astronomie (Germany)), AY(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AZ(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    BA(Univ. zu Koln (Germany)), BB(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    BC(Max-Planck-Institut fur Radiostronomie 
                    (Germany)), BD(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), BE(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico 
                    B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto 
                    Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 
                    924-933 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.550046
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5490..924E

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is an imaging interferometer for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and will make use of multi-conjugated adaptive optics (MCAO) with two 349 actuators deformable mirrors (DM), two 672 actuator deformable secondary mirrors and a total of 4 wavefront sensors (WFS) by using 8 or 12 natural guide stars each. The goal of the MCAO is to increase sky coverage and achieve a medium Strehl-ratio over the 2 arcmin field of view. To test the concepts and prototypes, a laboratory setup of one MCAO arm is being built. We present the layout of the MCAO prototype, planned and accomplished tests, especially for the used Xinetics DMs, and a possible setup for a test on sky with an existing 8m class telescope.


Title:              Numerical simulation studies for the first-light 
                    adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular 
                    Telescope
Authors:            Carbillet, Marcel; Riccardi, Armando;
                    Esposito, Simone
Affiliation:        AA(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AB(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AC(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico 
                    di Arcetri (Italy))
Publication:        Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico 
                    B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto 
                    Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 
                    721-732 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.551448
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5490..721C

Abstract

We present our latest results concerning the simulation studies performed for the first-light adaptive optics (AO) system of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), namely WLBT. After a brief description of the "raw" performance evaluation results, in terms of Strehl ratios attained in the various considered bands (from V to K), we focus on the "scientific" performance that will be obtained when considering the subsequent instrumentation that will benefit from the correction given by the AO system WLBT and the adaptive secondary mirrors LBT 672. In particular, we discuss the performance of the coupling with the instrument LUCIFER, working at near-infrared bands, in terms of signal-to-noise values and limiting magnitudes, and in both the cases of spectroscopy and photometric detection. We also give the encircled energies that are expected in the visible bands, result relevant in one hand for the instrument PEPSI, and in other hand for the "technical viewer" that will be on board the WLBT system itself.


Title:              LINC-NIRVANA: how to get a 23-m wavefront nearly 
                    flat
Authors:            Gaessler, Wolfgang; Ragazzoni, Roberto;
                    Herbst, Thomas M.; Andersen, David R.;
                    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Baumeister, Harald;
                    Beckmann, Udo; Behrend, Jan; Bertram, Thomas;
                    Bizenberger, Peter; Bohnhardt, Hermann;
                    Briegel, F.; Diolaiti, Emiliano;
                    Driebe, Thomas M.; Eckhardt, A.;
                    Egner, Sebastian E.; Farinato, Jacopo;
                    Heininger, Matthias; Kürster, M.; Laun, Werner;
                    Ligori, Sebastiano; Naranjo, Vianak;
                    Nussbaum, Edmund; Rix, Hans-Walter;
                    Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Salinari, Piero;
                    Soci, Roberto; Storz, Clemens;
                    Straubmeier, Christian; Vernet-Viard, Elise;
                    Weigelt, Gerd P.; Weiss, Robert; Xu, Wenli
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AB(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany) and 
                    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AC(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AD(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AE(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AF(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AG(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    Radioastronomie (Germany)), AH(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Radioastronomie (Germany)), AI(Univ. zu Koln 
                    (Germany)), AJ(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AK(Max Planck Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AL(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AM(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AN(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    Radioastronomie (Germany)), AO(Univ. zu Koln 
                    (Germany)), AP(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AQ(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AR(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    Radioastronomie (Germany)), AS(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Astronomie (Germany)), AT(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Astronomie (Germany)), AU(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Astronomie (Germany)), AV(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Astronomie (Germany)), AW(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Radioastronomie (Germany)), 
                    AX(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AY(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AZ(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), BA(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), BB(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), BC(Univ. zu Koln (Germany)), BD(INAF, 
                    Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    BE(Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie 
                    (Germany)), BF(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), BG(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico 
                    B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto 
                    Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 
                    527-534 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.551908
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5490..527G

Abstract

On the way to the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT) the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is an intermediate step. The two 8.4m mirrors create a masked aperture of 23m. LINC-NIRVANA is an instrument taking advantage of this opportunity. It will get, by means of Multi-Conjugated Adaptive Optics (MCAO), a moderate Strehl Ratio over a 2 arcmin field of view, which is used for Fizeau (imaging) interferometry in J,H and K. Several MCAO concepts, which are proposed for ELTs, will be proven with this instrument. Studies of sub-systems are done in the laboratory and the option to test them on sky are kept open. We will show the implementation of the MCAO concepts and control aspects of the instrument and present the road map to the final installation at LBT. Major milestones of LINC-NIRVANA, like preliminary design review or final design review are already done or in preparation. LINC-NIRVANA is one of the few MCAO instruments in the world which will see first light and go into operation within the next years.


Title:              Can we use adaptive optics for UHR spectroscopy with 
                    PEPSI at the LBT?
Authors:            Sacco, Germano G.; Pallavicini, Roberto;
                    Spano, Paolo; Andersen, Michael;
                    Woche, Manfred F.; Strassmeier, Klaus G.
Affiliation:        AA(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo (Italy) 
                    and Univ. degli Studi di Palermo (Italy)), AB(INAF, 
                    Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo (Italy)), 
                    AC(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo (Italy) 
                    and Univ. degli Studi di Palermo (Italy)), 
                    AD(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam (Germany)), 
                    AE(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam (Germany)), 
                    AF(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam (Germany))
Publication:        Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico 
                    B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto 
                    Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 
                    398-408 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.550373
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5490..398S

Abstract

We investigate the potential of using adaptive optics (AO) in the V, R, and I bands to reach ultra-high resolution (UHR, R >= 200,000) in echelle spectrographs at 8-10m telescopes. In particular, we investigate the possibility of implementing an UHR mode for the fiber-fed spectrograph PEPSI (Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectrographic Instrument) being developed for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). By simulating the performances of the advanced AO system that will be available at first light at the LBT, and by using first-order estimates of the spectrograph performances, we calculate the total efficiency and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of PEPSI in the AO mode for stars of different magnitudes, different fiber core sizes, and different fractions of incident light diverted to the wavefront sensor. We conclude that AO can provide a significant advantage, of up to a factor ~2 in the V, R and I bands, for stars brighter than mR ~ 12 - 13. However, if these stars are observed at UHR in non-AO mode, slit losses caused by the need to use a very narrow slit can be compensated more effectively by the use of image slicers.


Title:              Integration and test of the first light AO system 
                    for LBT
Authors:            Esposito, Simone; Tozzi, Andrea;
                    Puglisi, Alfio T.; Pinna, Enrico;
                    Stefanini, Paolo; Giorgetti, Gabriele;
                    Camiciottoli, Fabrizio; Salinari, Piero;
                    Bianchi, Paolo; Storm, Jesper
Affiliation:        AA(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AB(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AC(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico 
                    di Arcetri (Italy)), AD(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), AE(INAF, 
                    Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AF(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AG(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AH(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico 
                    di Arcetri (Italy)), AI(Istituto Nazionale di Ottica 
                    Applicata (Italy)), AJ(Astrophysikalisches Institut 
                    Potsdam (Germany))
Publication:        Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico 
                    B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto 
                    Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 
                    228-235 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.551724
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5490..228E

Abstract

The paper describes the single conjugate AO system called WLBT to be mounted at LBT in late summer 2004. The WLBT is part of the Acquisition, Guiding & Wavefront sensing unit (AGW) attached to the front bent Gregorian foci derotator. The two key features of this system are the use of a pyramid wavefront sensor with variable sampling between 30x30 and 5x5 sub apertures plus the use of an adaptive secondary mirror having 672 actuators as wavefront corrector. The AO system is mainly working as atmospheric disturbance correction system in the near infrared (J,H and K band). However due to the large number of actuators and sub apertures, it can obtain good performance even in R and I band. The paper reports about development and integration of the system final unit in the lab. Then some initial tests aimed to do a system characterization are reported. The results we obtained are used to give an estimation of the performance that the system can reach at the telescope in terms of limiting magnitude.


Title:              Active optics and force optimization for the first 
                    8.4-m LBT mirror
Authors:            Martin, Hubert M.; Cuerden, Brian;
                    Dettmann, Lee R.; Hill, John M.
Affiliation:        AA(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AB(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AC(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AD(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory/Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA))
Publication:        Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by Oschmann, 
                    Jacobus M., Jr.    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    5489, pp. 826-837 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.550464
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5489..826M

Abstract

We describe the active support system for the 8.4 m LBT primary mirrors and the use of this system to optimize the mirror figure in the lab before installation in the telescope. We figured the mirror, mounted on passive supports, to an accuracy of 18 nm rms surface after subtraction of spherical aberration and several flexible bending modes that would be corrected with the active supports. After installing the mirror on its active supports, we optimized the 160 support forces based on interferometric wavefront measurements and a finite-element model of mirror bending. We verified the accuracy of the model and determined a scale factor-the model is stiffer than the real mirror-by measuring a number of bending modes using forces calculated from the model. We then optimized the forces to obtain an accuracy of 28 nm rms surface. The optimization included correcting 200 nm of spherical aberration (Zernike coefficient of surface error) with a maximum correction force of 26 N.


Title:              The Large Binocular Telescope project
Authors:            Hill, John M.; Salinari, Piero
Affiliation:        AA(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory/Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA)), AB(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy))
Publication:        Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by Oschmann, 
                    Jacobus M., Jr.    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    5489, pp. 603-614 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.550556
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5489..603H

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project is a collaboration between institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, and Ohio. The telescope uses two 8.4-meter diameter primary mirrors mounted side-by-side to produce a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8-meter circular aperture. A unique feature of LBT is that the light from the two primary mirrors can be combined to produce phased array imaging of an extended field. This coherent imaging gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65-meter telescope. The first of two 8.4-meter borosilicate honeycomb primary mirrors has been installed in the telescope on Mt. Graham in southeastern Arizona. First Light is planned for later this year with one primary mirror and a prime focus imager. The second of the two primaries is being polished at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in Tucson and will be installed in the telescope in the Fall of 2005. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence.


Title:              The scaling relationship between telescope cost and 
                    aperture size for very large telescopes
Authors:            van Belle, Gerard T.; Meinel, Aden B.;
                    Meinel, Marjorie P.
Affiliation:        AA(Michelson Science Ctr. (USA)), AB(Jet Propulsion 
                    Lab. (USA)), AC(Jet Propulsion Lab. (USA))
Publication:        Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by Oschmann, 
                    Jacobus M., Jr.    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    5489, pp. 563-570 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.552181
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5489..563V

Abstract

Cost data for ground-based telescopes of the last century are analyzed for trends in the relationship between aperture size and cost. We find that for apertures built prior to 1980, costs scaled as aperture size to the 2.8 power, which is consistent with the previous finding of Meinel (1978). After 1980, 'traditional' monolithic mirror telescope costs have scaled as aperture to the 2.5 power. The large multiple mirror telescopes built or in construction during this time period (Keck, LBT, GTC) appear to deviate from this relationship with significant cost savings as a result, although it is unclear what power law such structures follow. We discuss the implications of the current cost-aperture size data on the proposed large telescope projects of the next ten to twenty years. Structures that naturally tend towards the 2.0 power in the cost-aperture relationship will be the favorable choice for future extremely large apertures; our expectation is that space-based structures will ultimately gain economic advantage over ground-based ones.


Title:              The acquisition, guiding, and wavefront sensing 
                    units for the Large Binocular Telescope
Authors:            Storm, Jesper; Seifert, Walter;
                    Bauer, Svend-Marian; Dionies, Frank;
                    Fechner, Thomas; Krämer, Felix; Möstl, Günter;
                    Popow, Emil; Esposito, Simone; Hill, John M.;
                    Salinari, Piero
Affiliation:        AA(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam (Germany)), 
                    AB(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl 
                    (Germany)), AC(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam 
                    (Germany)), AD(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam 
                    (Germany)), AE(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam 
                    (Germany)), AF(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam 
                    (Germany)), AG(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam 
                    (Germany)), AH(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam 
                    (Germany)), AI(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AJ(Large Binocular Telescope 
                    Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), AK(INAF, 
                    Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy))
Publication:        Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by Oschmann, 
                    Jacobus M., Jr.    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    5489, pp. 374-381 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.551126
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5489..374S

Abstract

We present the final opto-mechanical design of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Acquisition, Guiding and Wavefront Sensing Units (AGW-units) together with the laboratory test performance of the units. The units will be installed at the LBT shortly after this conference, at several of the different Gregorian focal positions available. Each AGW-unit consists of a probe with a camera and a wavefront sensor located in front of the science instrument. The probe can move in two axes allowing it to patrol a field off-axis to the science field. A dichroic beam-splitter on the probe transmits the blue light to the acquisition and guide camera and the red light is reflected into a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The guide camera is equipped with a 2.5x focal reducer giving a field of view of 28"x28" on a 512x1024 frame-transfer CCD. The 12x12 sub-pupil wavefront sensor uses a micro lenslet array made using an ion-exchange technique on a flat substrate with diffraction limited performance.


Title:              A robotic reflective Schmidt telescope for Dome C
Authors:            Strassmeier, K. G.; Andersen, M. I.; Steinbach, M.
Affiliation:        AA(Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP), An der 
                    Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany), 
                    AB(Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP), An der 
                    Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany), 
                    AC(Ingenieurbüro Steinbach-Könitzer-Lopez, 
                    Wildenbruchstr. 15, 07745 Jena, Germany)
Publication:        Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol.325, Issue 6, 
                    p.626-630 (AN Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2004
Origin:             AN
Keywords:           telescopes: robotic, techniques: wide field-CCD 
                    photometry, stars: activity, Antarctica (Dome C)
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
DOI:                10.1002/ansa.200410303
Bibliographic Code: 2004AN....325..626S

Abstract

This paper lays out a wide-field robotic Schmidt telescope (RST) for the Antarctic site Dome C. The telescope is based on 80/120cm reflective Schmidt optics, built originally for a space project, and a mosaic of four 7.5k×7.5k 8-$,1'<(Bm thinned CCDs from the PEPSI/LBT wafer run. The telescope's total field of view (FOV) would be 5o circular (minimum 3o× 3o square) with a plate scale of 0.7 arcsec per pixel. Limiting magnitude is expected to be V=21.5mag in 60 sec for a field of 9 square degrees.


Title:              The MPIA detector system for the LBT instruments 
                    LUCIFER and LINC-NIRVANA
Authors:            Ligori, Sebastiano; Lenzen, Rainer;
                    Mandel, Holger; Grimm, Bernhard; Mall, Ulrich
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AB(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AC(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl 
                    (Germany)), AD(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AE(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Optical and Infrared Detectors for Astronomy.  
                    Edited by James D. Garnett and James W. Beletic. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5499, pp. 108-118 
                    (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.549571
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5499..108L

Abstract

We describe the detector subsystem developed at MPIA to operate the Rockwell Hawaii-2 detectors used in the LUCIFER and LINC-NIRVANA instruments for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). To fully exploit the capabilities of the LBT, the detector subsystem must meet, especially in the case of the low background applications foreseen for LUCIFER, very stringent requirements in terms of stability and read noise. A read-out electronics has been developed at MPIA, which is able to read the 32 outputs of the Hawaii-2 detector, as well as the 4 reference signals available in this chip. The noise figure associated to the electronics alone is negligible with respect to the intrinsic read noise of the detector, while the cloking patterns and the value of the bias voltages applied to the chip are optimized in order to maximize the signal to noise ratio in the different operating modes. We present the results of the tests performed with the LUCIFER science detector; in particular, we describe the main properties of the detector: read noise, dark current, linearity, and long term stability, and what are the read-out schemes foreseen for different observational modes. We discuss also how the reference outputs can be used in order to correct for thermal drifts, and how effective those outputs are in removing higher frequency noise components.


Title:              LBT-AdOpt control software
Authors:            Fini, Luca; Puglisi, Alfio; Riccardi, Armando
Affiliation:        AA(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AB(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AC(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico 
                    di Arcetri (Italy))
Publication:        Advanced Software, Control, and Communication 
                    Systems for Astronomy.  Edited by Lewis, Hilton; 
                    Raffi, Gianni.  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    5496, pp. 528-537 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.552972
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5496..528F

Abstract

The LBT-AdOpt subsystem is a complex machine which includes several software controlled parts. It is essentially divided into two parts: a real-time loop which implements the actual adaptive optics control loop, from the wavefront sensor to the deformable secondary mirror, and a supervisor which performs a number of coordination and diagnostics tasks. The coordination and diagnostics task are essential for the proper operation of the system both as an aid for the preparation of observations and because only a continuous monitoring of dynamic system parameters can guarantee optimal performances and system safety during the operation. In the paper we describe the overall software architecture of the LBT-AdOpt supervisor and we discuss the functionalities required for a proper operation.


Title:              The LBT double prime focus camera control software
Authors:            Di Paola, Andrea; Baruffolo, Andrea;
                    Gallozzi, Stefano; Pedichini, Fernando;
                    Speziali, Roberto
Affiliation:        AA(INAF, Rome Astronomical Observatory (Italy)), 
                    AB(INAF, Padua Astronomical Observatory (Italy)), 
                    AC(INAF, Rome Astronomical Observatory (Italy)), 
                    AD(INAF, Rome Astronomical Observatory (Italy)), 
                    AE(INAF, Rome Astronomical Observatory (Italy))
Publication:        Advanced Software, Control, and Communication 
                    Systems for Astronomy.  Edited by Lewis, Hilton; 
                    Raffi, Gianni.  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    5496, pp. 477-488 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.555423
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5496..477D

Abstract

The LBT double prime focus camera (LBC) is composed of twin CCD mosaic imagers. The instrument is designed to match the double channel structure of the LBT telescope and to exploit parallel observing mode by optimizing one camera at blue and the other at red side of the visible spectrum. Because of these facts, the LBC activity will likely consist of simultaneous multi-wavelength observation of specific targets, with both channels working at the same time to acquire and download images at different rates. The LBC Control Software is responsible for coordinating these activities by managing scientific sensors and all the ancillary devices such as rotators, filter wheels, optical correctors focusing, house-keeping information, tracking and Active Optics wavefront sensors. The result is obtained using four dedicated PCs to control the four CCD controllers and one dual processor PC to manage all the other aspects including instrument operator interface. The general architecture of the LBC Control Software is described as well as solutions and details about its implementation.


Title:              The development process of the LUCIFER control 
                    software
Authors:            Juette, Marcus; Polsterer, Kai L.;
                    Lehmitz, Michael; Knierim, Volker
Affiliation:        AA(Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)), AB(Ruhr-Univ. 
                    Bochum (Germany)), AC(Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Konigstuhl (Germany)), AD(Ruhr-Univ. 
                    Bochum (Germany))
Publication:        Advanced Software, Control, and Communication 
                    Systems for Astronomy.  Edited by Lewis, Hilton; 
                    Raffi, Gianni.  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    5496, pp. 469-476 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.551166
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5496..469J

Abstract

In this paper we present the software development process and history of the LUCIFER (LBT NIR spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral- Field Unit for Extragalactic Research) multi-mode near-infrared instrument, which is one of the first light instruments of the LBT on Mt. Graham, Arizona. The software is realised as a distributed system in Java using its remote method invocation service (RMI). We describe the current status of the software and give an overview of the planned computer hardware architecture.


Title:              UML modeling of the LINC-NIRVANA control software
Authors:            Gaessler, Wolfgang; Bertram, Thomas;
                    Briegel, F.; Driebe, Thomas M.;
                    Heininger, Matthias; Nussbaum, Edmund;
                    Storz, Clemens; Wang, J.; Zealouk, Lahbib;
                    Herbst, Thomas M.; Ragazzoni, Roberto;
                    Eckhardt, A.; Weigelt, Gerd P.
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AB(Univ. zu Koln (Germany)), AC(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Astronomie (Germany)), AD(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Radioastronomie (Germany)), 
                    AE(Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie 
                    (Germany)), AF(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    Radioastronomie (Germany)), AG(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Astronomie (Germany)), AH(Univ. zu Koln 
                    (Germany)), AI(Univ. zu Koln (Germany)), 
                    AJ(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AK(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany) and 
                    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AL(Univ. zu Koln (Germany)), AM(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Radioastronomie (Germany))
Publication:        Advanced Software, Control, and Communication 
                    Systems for Astronomy.  Edited by Lewis, Hilton; 
                    Raffi, Gianni.  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    5496, pp. 79-87 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.551756
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5496...79G

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is a Fizeau interferometer for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) doing imaging in the near infrared (J,H,K - band). Multi-conjugated adaptive optics is used to increase sky coverage and to get diffraction limited images over a 2 arcminute field of view. The control system consists of five independent loops, which are mediated through a master control. Due to the configuration, LINC-NIRVANA has no delay line like other interferometers. To remove residual atmospheric piston, the system must control both the primary and secondary mirrors, in addition to a third, dedicated piston mirror. This leads to a complex and interlocked control scheme and software. We will present parts of the instrument software design, which was developed in an object-oriented manner using UML. Several diagram types were used to structure the overall system and to evaluate the needs and interfaces of each sub-system to each other.


Title:              Conceptual design and structural analysis for an 
                    8.4-m telescope
Authors:            Mendoza, Manuel; Farah, Alejandro;
                    Ruiz Schneider, Elfego
Affiliation:        AA(Instituto de Astronomía, Univ. Nacional Autónoma 
                    de México (Mexico)), AB(Instituto de Astronomía, 
                    Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico)), 
                    AC(Instituto de Astronomía, Univ. Nacional Autónoma 
                    de México (Mexico))
Publication:        Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology.  
                    Edited by Antebi, Joseph; Lemke, Dietrich.  
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5495, pp. 526-536 
                    (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.563388
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5495..526M

Abstract

This paper describes the conceptual design of the optics support structures of a telescope with a primary mirror of 8.4 m, the same size as a Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) primary mirror. The design goal is to achieve a structure for supporting the primary and secondary mirrors and keeping them joined as rigid as possible. With this purpose an optimization with several models was done. This iterative design process includes: specifications development, concepts generation and evaluation. Process included Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as well as other analytical calculations. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was used to obtain telescope tube and spider specifications. Eight spiders and eleven tubes geometric concepts were proposed. They were compared in decision matrixes using performance indicators and parameters. Tubes and spiders went under an iterative optimization process. The best tubes and spiders concepts were assembled together. All assemblies were compared and ranked according to their performance.


Title:              Handling and transporting the 8.4-m mirrors for the 
                    Large Binocular Telescope
Authors:            Davison, Warren B.; Warner, Stephen H.;
                    Williams, Joseph T.; Lutz, Randall D.;
                    Hill, John M.; Slagle, Jim H.
Affiliation:        AA(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AB(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AC(Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory/Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA)), AD(Steward Observatory/Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA)), AE(Large Binocular Telescope 
                    Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), AF(Large 
                    Binocular Telescope Observatory/Univ. of Arizona 
                    (USA))
Publication:        Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology.  
                    Edited by Antebi, Joseph; Lemke, Dietrich.  
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5495, pp. 453-462 
                    (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.549808
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5495..453D

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope has two 8.4 meter mirrors, one of which is now in the telescope. Handling and moving the 8.4-meter honeycomb mirrors calls for moving 16 metric ton mirrors while maintaining very low stresses. We have now handled the first LBT mirror off the furnace, turned on edge, cleaned out, turned upside down, on the grinder, turned again, put on a polishing cell, moved under the polishing machine, lifted with a vacuum lifting fixture, moved to the telescope cell, to a transportation box, down the highway, onto a multi-axle trailer on edge, up Mount Graham, into the telescope building, back into the telescope cell and up through a hatch onto the telescope itself. The second LBT mirror is in the polishing stage. We have designed and manufactured many pieces of specialized equipment to handle the task. This equipment must be able to handle the mirrors without exceeding 0.7 MPa (100 psi) stress in the glass.


Title:              The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) structure
Authors:            Gunnels, Steve; Davison, Warren B.;
                    Cuerden, Brian; Hertz, Edward
Affiliation:        AA(Paragon Engineering (USA)), AB(Steward 
                    Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), AC(Steward 
                    Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AD(Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (USA))
Publication:        Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology.  
                    Edited by Antebi, Joseph; Lemke, Dietrich.  
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5495, pp. 168-179 
                    (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.550266
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5495..168G

Abstract

A concept design has been developed for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). The project is a collaboration by a group of U.S. universities and research institutions to build a 21.5-meter equivalent aperture optical-infrared telescope in Chile. The segmented primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-meter diameter borosilicate honeycomb mirrors that will be cast by the Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory. The fast primary optics allow the use of unusually compact telescope and enclosure structures. A wide range of secondary trusses has been considered for the alt-az mount. The chosen truss employs carbon fiber and steel and, due to its unique geometry, achieves high stiffness with minimal wind area and primary obscuration. The mount incorporates hydrostatic supports and a C-ring elevation structure similar in concept to those implemented on the Magellan 6.5-m and LBT dual 8.4-m telescopes. Extensive finite element analysis has been used to optimize the telescope structure, achieving a lowest telescope resonant frequency of ~5 Hz. The design allows for removal and replacement of any of the 7 subcells for off-telescope mirror coating with no risk to the other mirrors. A wide range of instruments can be used which mount to the top or underside of a large instrument platform below the primary mirror cells. Large instruments are interchanged during the day while small and medium-sized instruments can be enabled quickly during the night. The large Gregorian instruments will incorporate astatic supports to minimize flexure and hysteresis.


Title:              The Large Binocular Camera image simulator: 
                    predicting the performances of LBC
Authors:            Grazian, Andrea; Fontana, Adriano;
                    De Santis, Cristian; Gallozzi, Stefano;
                    Giallongo, Emanuele
Affiliation:        AA(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), 
                    AB(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), 
                    AC(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), 
                    AD(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), 
                    AE(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy))
Publication:        Optimizing Scientific Return for Astronomy through 
                    Information Technologies.  Edited by Quinn, Peter 
                    J.; Bridger, Alan.  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    5493, pp. 186-197 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.552980
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5493..186G

Abstract

The LBC (Large Binocular Camera) Image Simulator is a package for generating artificial images in the typical FITS format. It operates on real or artificial images, simulating the expected performances of real instruments including several observing conditions (filters, air-mass, flat-field, exposure time) and creating images with the LBC instrumental artifacts (optical deformations, noise, CCD architectures). This simulator can be used also to produce artificial images for other existing and future telescopes, since it is very flexible on its structure. The main aim of LBCSIM is to support the development of pipeline and data analysis procedure able to cope with wide field imaging and fast reduction of huge amount of photometric data. The software consists of three stand alone programs written in C language, using IRAF and running under Linux OS. The LBC Image Simulator is built with particular attention to the Virtual Observatory and Data Grid applications. In this paper, we first describe the software, the performances and several tests carried out before the public release and some examples for the users. In particular, we compared the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS) as seen by FORS1 with a simulated image and found that the agreement is good. Then, we use this software to predict the expected performances of the LBC instrument by means of realistic simulations of deep field observations with the LBT telescope.


Title:              LUCIFER: status and results of the hardware testing
Authors:            Seifert, Walter; Laun, Werner;
                    Lehmitz, Michael; Mandel, Holger;
                    Schuetze, Andreas; Seltmann, Andreas
Affiliation:        AA(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Konigstuhl 
                    (Germany)), AB(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AC(Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Konigstuhl (Germany)), 
                    AD(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Konigstuhl 
                    (Germany)), AE(Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Konigstuhl (Germany)), 
                    AF(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Konigstuhl (Germany))
Publication:        Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy. Edited 
                    by Alan F. M. Moorwood and Iye Masanori. Proceedings 
                    of the SPIE, Volume 5492, pp. 1343-1350 (2004). 
                    (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.551288
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5492.1343S

Abstract

LUCIFER (LBT NIR-Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral-Field Unit for Extragalactic Research) is a NIR spectrograph and imager (wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 micron) for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona. It is built by a consortium of five German institutes and will be one of the first light instruments for the LBT. Later, a second copy for the second mirror of the telescope will follow. Both instruments will be mounted at the bent Gregorian foci of the two individual telescope mirrors. The instrument is equipped with three exchangeable cameras for imaging and spectroscopy: two of them are optimized for seeing-limited conditions, the third camera for the diffraction-limited case with the LBT adaptive secondary mirror working. The spectral resolution will allow for OH suppression. Up to 33 exchangeable masks will be available for longslit and multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) over the full field of view (FOV). The detector will be a Rockwell HAWAII-2 HgCdTe-array. Extensive tests were done for all the electro-mechanical functions. Those include the grating selection and the grating tilt unit and the drive for the fold mirror to compensate for image movement due to flexure. Furthermore several optical and opto-mechanical units were tested. The procedures and results of the tests are presented in detail and compared with the specifications.


Title:              LUCIFER status report, summer 2004
Authors:            Mandel, Holger; Appenzeller, Immo;
                    Seifert, Walter; Baumeister, Harald;
                    Bizenberger, Peter; Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen;
                    Gemperlein, Hans; Grimm, Bernhard;
                    Herbst, Tom M.; Hofmann, Reiner; Jutte, Marcus;
                    Laun, Werner; Lehmitz, Michael;
                    Ligori, Sebastiano; Lenzen, Rainer;
                    Polsterer, Kai; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer;
                    Schuetze, Andreas; Seltmann, Andreas;
                    Weiser, Peter; Weisz, Harald; Xu, Wenli
Affiliation:        AA(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Konigstuhl 
                    (Germany)), AB(Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Konigstuhl (Germany)), 
                    AC(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Konigstuhl 
                    (Germany)), AD(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AE(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AF(Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)), 
                    AG(Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik 
                    (Germany)), AH(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AI(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AJ(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)), AK(Ruhr-Univ. 
                    Bochum (Germany)), AL(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AM(Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Konigstuhl (Germany)), 
                    AN(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AO(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AP(Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)), 
                    AQ(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AR(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Konigstuhl 
                    (Germany)), AS(Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Konigstuhl (Germany)), AT(Fachhochschule 
                    Mannheim (Germany)), AU(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)), 
                    AV(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany))
Publication:        Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy. Edited 
                    by Alan F. M. Moorwood and Iye Masanori. Proceedings 
                    of the SPIE, Volume 5492, pp. 1208-1217 (2004). 
                    (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.551302
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5492.1208M

Abstract

LUCIFER (LBT NIR Spectrograph Utility with Camera and Integral-Field Unit for Extragalactic Research) is a NIR spectrograph and imager for the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope) working in the wavelength range from 0.9 to 2.5 microns. The instrument is to be built by a consortium of five german institutes (Landessternwarte Heidelberg (LSW), Max Planck Institut for Astronomy (MPIA), Max Planck Institut for Extraterrestric Physics (MPE), Astronomical Institut of the Ruhr-University Bochum (AIRUB) and Fachhochschule for Technics and Design Mannheim (FHTG)). LUCIFER will be one of the first light instruments of the LBT and will be available to the community at the end of 2005. A copy of the instrument for the second LBT mirror follows about one year later. The paper presents a brief status report of the procured and built hardware, of the workpackages already carried out and summarizes the ongoing work in progress.


Title:              Optical alignment of the LBT prime focus camera
Authors:            Diolaiti, Emiliano; Farinato, Jacopo;
                    Ragazzoni, Roberto; Vernet, Elise;
                    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Faccin, Fabio
Affiliation:        AA(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna 
                    (Italy)), AB(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AC(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico 
                    di Arcetri (Italy)), AD(INAF, Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), AE(Univ. degli 
                    Studi di Firenze (Italy)), AF(Univ. degli Studi di 
                    Padova (Italy))
Publication:        Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy. Edited 
                    by Alan F. M. Moorwood and Iye Masanori. Proceedings 
                    of the SPIE, Volume 5492, pp. 513-524 (2004). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.552224
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5492..513D

Abstract

While this paper is written, the Blue channel of the double prime focus camera for the Large Binocular Telescope is being commissioned at the telescope. We report here on the optical alignment of the prime focus corrector, a rather challenging activity, due to the tight alignment tolerances and to the size of the lenses. Furthermore we describe the current plans about the alignment of the prime focus corrector with the primary mirror of the telescope, which is foreseen in the next few months.


Title:              Optical design of the PEPSI high-resolution 
                    spectrograph at LBT
Authors:            Andersen, Michael I.; Spano, Paolo;
                    Woche, Manfred; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Beckert, Erik
Affiliation:        AA(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam (Germany)), 
                    AB(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo 
                    (Italy)), AC(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam 
                    (Germany)), AD(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam 
                    (Germany)), AE(Fraunhofer Institut fur Angewandte 
                    Optik und Feinmechanik (Germany))
Publication:        Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy. Edited 
                    by Alan F. M. Moorwood and Iye Masanori. Proceedings 
                    of the SPIE, Volume 5492, pp. 381-388 (2004). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.550533
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5492..381A

Abstract

PEPSI is a high-resolution, fiber fed echelle spectrograph with polarimetric capabilities for the LBT. In order to reach a maximum resolution R=120.000 in polarimetric mode and 300.000 in integral light mode with high efficiency in the spectral range 390-1050~nm, we designed a white-pupil configuration with Maksutov collimators. Light is dispersed by an R4 31.6 lines/mm monolithic echelle grating mosaic and split into two arms through dichroics. The two arms, optimized for the spectral range 390-550~nm and 550-1050~nm, respectively, consist of Maksutov transfer collimators, VPH-grism cross dispersers, optimized dioptric cameras and 7.5K x 7.5K 8~$,1'<(B CCDs. Fibers of different core sizes coupled to different image-slicers allow a high throughput, comparable to that of direct feed instruments. The optical configuration with only spherical and cylindrical surfaces, except for one aspherical surface in each camera, reduces costs and guarantees high optical quality. PEPSI is under construction at AIP with first light expected in 2006.


Title:              An overview of instrumentation for the Large 
                    Binocular Telescope
Authors:            Wagner, R. Mark
Affiliation:        AA(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory/Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA))
Publication:        Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy. Edited 
                    by Alan F. M. Moorwood and Iye Masanori. Proceedings 
                    of the SPIE, Volume 5492, pp. 108-120 (2004). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.550645
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5492..108W

Abstract

An overview of instrumentation for the Large Binocular Telescope is presented. Optical instrumentation includes the Large Binocular Camera (LBC), a pair of wide-field (27'x 27') UB/VRI optimized mosaic CCD imagers at the prime focus, and the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph (MODS), a pair of dual-beam blue-red optimized long-slit spectrographs mounted at the straight-through F/15 Gregorian focus incorporating multiple slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy over a 6\arcmin\ field and spectral resolutions of up to 8000. Infrared instrumentation includes the LBT Near-IR Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research (LUCIFER), a modular near-infrared (0.9-2.5 $,1'<(Bm) imager and spectrograph pair mounted at a bent interior focal station and designed for seeing-limited (FOV: 4'x 4') imaging, long-slit spectroscopy, and multi-object spectroscopy utilizing cooled slit masks and diffraction limited (FOV: 0'.5 x 0'.5) imaging and long-slit spectroscopy. Strategic instruments under development for the remaining two combined focal stations include an interferometric cryogenic beam combiner with near-infrared and thermal-infrared instruments for Fizeau imaging and nulling interferometry (LBTI) and an optical bench beam combiner with visible and near-infrared imagers utilizing multi-conjugate adaptive optics for high angular resolution and sensitivity (LINC/NIRVANA). In addition, a fiber-fed bench spectrograph (PEPSI) capable of ultra high resolution spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry (R = 40,000-300,000) will be available as a principal investigator instrument. The availability of all these instruments mounted simultaneously on the LBT permits unique science, flexible scheduling, and improved operational support.


Title:              LINC-NIRVANA: first attempt of an instrument for a 
                    23-m-class telescope
Authors:            Gassler, Wolfgang; Herbst, Thomas M.;
                    Ragazzoni, Roberto; Andersen, David R.;
                    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Baumeister, Harald;
                    Beckmann, Udo; Bertram, Thomas;
                    Bizenberger, Peter; Bohnhardt, Hermann;
                    Diolaiti, Emiliano; Eckart, Andreas;
                    Farinato, Jacopo; Ligori, Sebastiano;
                    Rix, Hans-Walter; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer;
                    Salinari, Piero; Soci, Roberto;
                    Straubmeier, Christian; Vernet-Viard, Elise;
                    Weigelt, Gerd; Weiss, Robert; Xu, Wenli
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AB(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AC(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany) and 
                    Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AD(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AE(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AF(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AG(Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie 
                    (Germany)), AH(Univ. Koln (Germany)), 
                    AI(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AJ(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AK(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AL(Univ. Koln (Germany)), AM(Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AN(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AO(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AP(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AQ(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AR(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AS(Univ. Koln (Germany)), AT(Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AU(Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie 
                    (Germany)), AV(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AW(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Second Backaskog Workshop on Extremely Large 
                    Telescopes.  Edited by Ardeberg, Arne L.; Andersen, 
                    Torben.  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5382, pp. 
                    742-747 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.566389
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5382..742G

Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is a Fizeau interferometer which will be built for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT exists of two 8.4m mirrors on one mounting with a distance of 22.8m between the outer edges of the two mirrors. The interferometric technique used in LINC-NIRVANA provides direct imaging with the resolution of a 23m telescope in one direction and 8.4m in the other. The instrument uses multi-conjugated adaptive optics (MCAO) to increase the sky coverage and achieve the diffraction limit in J, H, K over a moderate Field of View (2 arcmin in diameter). During the preliminary design phase the team faced several problems similar to those for an instrument at a 23m telescope. We will give an overview of the current design, explain problems related to 20m class telescopes and present solutions.


Title:              Layer-Oriented on paper, laboratory, and soon on the 
                    sky
Authors:            Farinato, Jacopo; Ragazzoni, Roberto;
                    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Paolo, Bagnara;
                    Baruffolo, Andrea; Baumeister, Harald;
                    Bisson, Raffaella; Bohnhardt, Hermann;
                    Brindisi, Angela; Brynnel, Joar;
                    Cecconi, Massimo; Coyne, Julien;
                    Delabre, Bernhard; Diolaiti, Emiliano;
                    Donaldson, Rob; Fedrigo, Enrico;
                    Franza, Francis; Gassler, Wolfgang;
                    Ghedina, Adriano; Herbst, Thomas M.;
                    Hubin, Norbert N.; Kellner, Stephan;
                    Kolb, Johann; Lizon, Jean-Louis;
                    Lombini, Matteo; Marchetti, Enrico;
                    Meneghini, Gianluigi; Mohr, Lars;
                    Reiss, Roland; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer;
                    Soci, Roberto; Vernet, Elise; Weiss, Robert;
                    Xompero, Marco; Xu, Wenli
Affiliation:        AA(INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy) 
                    and Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AB(INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy) 
                    and Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AC(Univ. degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)), 
                    AD(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Italy)), 
                    AE(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Italy)), 
                    AF(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AG(NIDEK Technologies Srl (Italy)), 
                    AH(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AI(INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AJ(European Southern Observatory 
                    (Germany)), AK(Ctr. Galileo Galilei (Spain)), 
                    AL(INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AM(European Southern Observatory 
                    (Germany)), AN(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy) and Univ. degli Studi di Padova 
                    (Italy)), AO(European Southern Observatory 
                    (Germany)), AP(European Southern Observatory 
                    (Germany)), AQ(European Southern Observatory 
                    (Germany)), AR(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AS(Ctr. Galileo Galilei (Spain)), 
                    AT(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AU(European Southern Observatory (Germany)), 
                    AV(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AW(European Southern Observatory (Germany)), 
                    AX(European Southern Observatory (Germany)), 
                    AY(INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy) 
                    and Univ. degli Studi di Bologna (Italy)), 
                    AZ(European Southern Observatory (Germany)), 
                    BA(NIDEK Technologies Srl (Italy)), 
                    BB(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    BC(European Southern Observatory (Germany)), 
                    BD(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    BE(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    BF(INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), BG(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), BH(INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy) and Univ. degli Studi di Padova 
                    (Italy)), BI(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Second Backaskog Workshop on Extremely Large 
                    Telescopes.  Edited by Ardeberg, Arne L.; Andersen, 
                    Torben.  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5382, pp. 
                    578-587 (2004). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2004
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.566345
Bibliographic Code: 2004SPIE.5382..578F

Abstract

Layer Oriented represented in the last few years a new and promising aproach to solve the problems related to the limited field of view achieved by classical Adaptive Optics systems. It is basically a different approach to multi conjugate adaptive optics, in which pupil plane wavefront sensors (like the pyramid one) are conjugated to the same altitudes as the deformable mirrors. Each wavefront sensor is independently driving its conjugated deformable mirror thus simplifying strongly the complexity of the wavefront computers used to reconstruct the deformations and drive the mirror themselves, fact that can become very important in the case of extremely large telescopes where the complexity is a serious issue. The fact of using pupil plane wavefront sensors allow for optical co-addition of the light at the level of the detector thus increasing the SNR of the system and permitting the usage of faint stars, improving the efficiency of the wavefront sensor. Furthermore if coupled to the Pyramid wavefront sensor (because of its high sensitivity), this technique is actually peforming a very efficient usage of the light leading to the expectation that, even by using only natural guide stars, a good sky coverage can be achieved, above all in the case of giant telescopes. These are the main reasons for which in the last two years several projects decided to make MCAO systems based on the Layer Oriented technique. This is the case of MAD (an MCAO demonstrator that ESO is building with one wavefront sensing channel based on the Layer Oriented concept) and NIRVANA (an instrument for LBT). Few months ago we built and successfully tested a first prototype of a layer oriented wavefront sensor and experiments and demonstrations on the sky are foreseen even before the effective first light of the above mentioned instruments. The current situation of all these projects is presented, including the extensive laboratory testing and the on-going experiments on the sky.


Title:              Supernova 2004cv in MCG +03-41-120
Authors:            Schwarz, G.; Karam, A.; Wagner, R. M.;
                    Rohrbach, J. G.; Starrfield, S.
Publication:        IAU Circ., 8364, 2 (2004).  Edited by Green, D. W. 
                    E. (IAUC Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2004
Origin:             CBAT
Objects:            2004cv
Bibliographic Code: 2004IAUC.8364....2S

Abstract

IAUC 8364 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.


Title:              The Development Process of the LUCIFER Control 
                    Software
Authors:            Jütte, M.; Polsterer, K.; Lehmitz, M.
Publication:        Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems 
                    (ADASS) XIII, Proceedings of the conference held 
                    12-15 October, 2003 in Strasbourg, France. Edited by 
                    Francois Ochsenbein, Mark G. Allen and Daniel Egret. 
                    ASP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 314. San Francisco: 
                    Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2004., p.712
Publication Date:   07/2004
Origin:             AUTHOR
Bibliographic Code: 2004ASPC..314..712J

Abstract

We present the design and development process of the control software for the LBT NIR spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral-Field Unit for Extragalactic Research (LUCIFER) which is one of the first-light instruments for the LBT on Mt. Graham, Arizona. The LBT will be equipped with two identical LUCIFER instruments for both mirrors. We give an overview of the software architecture and the current state of the software package and describe the development process by using a virtual LUCIFER instrument.


Title:              An Overview of the Large Binocular Telescope Control 
                    System
Authors:            Axelrod, T. A.; de La Peña, M. D.
Publication:        Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems 
                    (ADASS) XIII, Proceedings of the conference held 
                    12-15 October, 2003 in Strasbourg, France. Edited by 
                    Francois Ochsenbein, Mark G. Allen and Daniel Egret. 
                    ASP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 314. San Francisco: 
                    Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2004., p.704
Publication Date:   07/2004
Origin:             AUTHOR
Bibliographic Code: 2004ASPC..314..704A

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) consists of two 8.4-meter mirrors on a common mount. This configuration provides the light gathering power equivalent to an 11.8-meter telescope and the resolving power of an 22.8-meter telescope. Due to the binocular nature of the telescope, there are unique requirements imposed on the telescope control system (TCS) to ensure the health and safety of the telescope, while also enabling observations in both independent and interferometric mode.

This paper presents an overview of the design of the TCS, from the graphical user interface (GUI) and the plotting and analysis capabilities at the highest interaction level to the low-level interfaces for the software.



Title:              The science case of the PEPSI high-resolution 
                    echelle spectrograph and polarimeter for the LBT
Authors:            Strassmeier, K. G.; Pallavicini, R.;
                    Rice, J. B.; Andersen, M. I.
Affiliation:        AA(Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP), An der 
                    Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany; Universität 
                    Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, 14469 Potsdam, 
                    Germany), AB(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di 
                    Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, 
                    Italy), AC(Department of Physics, Brandon 
                    University, Brandon, Manitoba R7A 6A9, Canada; 
                    Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP), An der 
                    Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany), 
                    AD(Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP), An der 
                    Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany), AE(INAF - 
                    Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, 
                    23807 Merate (LC), Italy), AF(INAF - Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate 
                    (LC), Italy)
Publication:        Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol.325, Issue 4, 
                    p.278-298 (AN Homepage)
Publication Date:   05/2004
Origin:             AN
Keywords:           instrumentation: polarimeters, spectrographs, LBT, 
                    stars: magnetic fields, activity
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
DOI:                10.1002/ansa.200310178
Bibliographic Code: 2004AN....325..278S

Abstract

We lay out the scientific rationale for and present the instrumental requirements of a high-resolution adaptive-optics Echelle spectrograph with two full-Stokes polarimeters for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona. Magnetic processes just like those seen on the Sun and in the space environment of the Earth are now well recognized in many astrophysical areas. The application to other stars opened up a new field of research that became widely known as the solar-stellar connection. Late-type stars with convective envelopes are all affected by magnetic processes which give rise to a rich variety of phenomena on their surface and are largely responsible for the heating of their outer atmospheres. Magnetic fields are likely to play a crucial role in the accretion process of T-Tauri stars as well as in the acceleration and collimation of jet-like flows in young stellar objects (YSOs). Another area is the physics of active galactic nucleii (AGNs) , where the magnetic activity of the accreting black hole is now believed to be responsible for most of the behavior of these objects, including their X-ray spectrum, their notoriously dramatic variability, and the powerful relativistic jets they produce. Another is the physics of the central engines of cosmic gamma-ray bursts, the most powerful explosions in the universe, for which the extreme apparent energy release are explained through the collimation of the released energy by magnetic fields. Virtually all the physics of magnetic fields exploited in astrophysics is somehow linked to our understanding of the Sun's and the star's magnetic fields.


Title:              Applying Zeeman Doppler imaging to solar spectra
Authors:            Hussain, G. A. J.; Saar, S. H.; Collier Cameron, A.
Affiliation:        AA( Astrophysics Div., Research & Science Support 
                    Department of ESA, ESTEC, Postbus 299, Noordwijk, 
                    The Netherlands), AB(Harvard Smithsonian CFA, 60 
                    Garden St, Cambridge MA 02138, USA), AC(School of 
                    Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, North 
                    Haugh, Fife KY16 9SS, UK)
Publication:        Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol.325, Issue 3, 
                    p.245-245 (AN Homepage)
Publication Date:   03/2004
Origin:             AN
DOI:                10.1002/asna.200310220
Bibliographic Code: 2004AN....325..245H

Abstract

A new generation of spectro-polarimeters with high throughput (e.g. CFHT/ESPADONS and LBT/PEPSI) is becoming available. This opportunity can be exploited using Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI), a technique that inverts time-series of Stokes V spectra to map stellar surface magnetic fields (Semel 1989). ZDI is assisted by ``Least squares deconvolution'' (LSD), which sums up the signal from 1000's of photospheric lines to produce a mean deconvolved profile with higher S:N (Donati & Collier Cameron 1997).


Title:              The Potential of Near-Infrared High-Resolution 
                    Studies on the Field of Galaxy in the Young Universe
Authors:            Wittkowski, Markus
Affiliation:        AA(European Southern Observatory 
                    )
Publication:        Studies of Galaxies in the Young Universe with New 
                    Generation Telescope, Proceedings of Japan-German 
                    Seminar, held in Sendai, Japan, July 24-28, 2001, 
                    Eds.: N. Arimoto and W. Duschl, 2004, p. 13-21
Publication Date:   02/2004
Origin:             AUTHOR
Bibliographic Code: 2004sgyu.conf...13W

Abstract

So far, high resolution techniques on the one hand provide morphological information about bright nearby objects. On the other hand, telescopes with large collecting areas allow us to detect very faint objects with high redshifts, but not to obtain a spatial resolution that is sufficient to do detailed studies of the morphology of these objects. Currently, the building of large interferometers like the Very Large Telescope Interferometer or the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer is in progress. These instruments will simultaneously provide larger collecting areas and higher spatial resolutions than current instruments. For example, the resolution of the LBT is about 10 times higher than that of the HST while its collecting area is about 20 times higher. I will report on recent results in the field of high resolution studies of extragalactic objects. I will review the concepts of the forthcoming interferometers and other projects and will discuss the technical aspects that are essential for observations of high redshift galaxies in the young universe. I will finish with an outlook on which observational tasks can be addressed to these instruments and how the results will increase our knowledge in the field of the evolution of galaxies and the universe.


Title:              Toward the Interferometric First Light of LBT: 
                    LINC-NIRVANA
Authors:            Farinato, J.; Ragazzoni, R.; Diolaiti, E.;
                    Arcidiacono, C.
Affiliation:        AA(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. 
                    Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze, Italy), AB(Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 
                    Firenze, Italy), AC(Osservatorio Astronomico di 
                    Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy), 
                    AD(Dipartimento di Astronomia e Fisica dello Spazio, 
                    Universitá di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 
                    Firenze, Italy)
Publication:        Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana 
                    Supplement, v.5, p.380 (2004)
Publication Date:   00/2004
Origin:             MmSAI
Keywords:           Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics, Layer Oriented, 
                    Fizeau Interferometry
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: SAIt
Bibliographic Code: 2004MSAIS...5..380F

Abstract

Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) allows one to obtain images close to the diffraction limit of a telescope on relatively large fields, at least when compared with the few arc-seconds of single star Adaptive Optics. This feature is fundamental to push to the limit the performance of the new generation of astronomical instruments, and this is why several 8-m class telescopes are designing and building MCAO systems. We are finishing the integration of one of the two MCAO wavefront sensor of MAD, a demonstrator that will be installed toward the end of the year at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). At the same time we are designing an instrument for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) based on the Layer-Oriented MCAO Technique, namely LINC-NIRVANA. Our contribution to this project, the first light of which is foreseen at the end of 2006, concerns the construction of four wavefront sensors for the double MCAO system (one for each telescope), with the aim of removing the atmospheric disturbance from the two beams which are going to be used in a Fizeau interferometric way. The status of these projects will be presented.


Title:              The Optimized Cryostat for the LBC Camera
Authors:            Pedichini, F.; Speziali, R.
Affiliation:        AA(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico Roma), AB(Istituto Nazionale di 
                    Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico Roma)
Publication:        Scientific Detectors for Astronomy, The Beginning of 
                    a New Era; eds. Amico, P.; Beletic, J. W.; Beletic, 
                    J. E., p. 349-366
Publication Date:   00/2004
Origin:             AUTHOR
Keywords:           cryogenics, imager, Charge-Coupled Device (CCD), 
                    wide field, Large Binocular Telescope (LBT).
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Bibliographic Code: 2004ASSL..300..349P

Abstract

The Large Binocular Camera (LBC) is the double optical imager that will be installed at the prime foci of the Large Binocular Telescope (2m´8.4m). Three Italian observatories are cooperating in this project: Rome (CCD Camera), Arcetri-Padua (Optical Corrector) and Trieste (Software). LBC is comprised of two separate large field (27¢ FOV with a sampling of 0.232/pix) 6 lense optical correctors, one optimized for the UVB bands and the second for the V, R, I,and Z bands. The two focal plane cameras use each one an array of four 42-90 chips (4.5K´2K) provided by Marconi and optimized for the maximum quantum efficiency (85%) in the blue or red end of the optical spectrum, that can be read with a speed is of 4 Mpix/sec using an Elettromare CCD controller. The arrays are cooled by peculiar LN2 cryostats that can assure more than 24 hours of continuos operation with 8 liters of LN2. Here we present an overview of the project and a description of the CCD cameras mainly describing the cryogenic project and the laboratory tests. This instrument is planned to be the first light instrument of LBT.


Title:              Overview of the development of the pathfinder 
                    ultra-long duration balloon system
Authors:            Said, Magdi A.; Stuchlik, David; Corbin, Brian;
                    Smolinski, Michael; Abresch, Brian;
                    Shreves, Christopher; Stancil, Robert;
                    Cathey, Henry M.; Cannon, Scott
Affiliation:        AA(National Areonautics and Space Administration 
                    (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Wallops 
                    Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA 23337,  USA; 
                    ), AB(National Areonautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA 23337,  USA), AC(National Areonautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA 23337,  USA), AD(National Areonautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA 23337,  USA), AE(National Areonautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA 23337,  USA), AF(National Areonautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA 23337,  USA), AG(National Areonautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Godd!
 ard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA 23337,  USA), AH(Physical Science Laboratory, New Mexico State University, Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island,VA 23337,  USA), AI(Physical Science Laboratory, New Mexico State University, Scott Cannnon, NM,  USA) 

Publication:        Advances in Space Research, Volume 33, Issue 10, p. 
                    1627-1632. (AdSpR Homepage)
Publication Date:   00/2004
Origin:             ELSEVIER
Keywords:           Scientific Ballooning, Ultra-long duration balloon 
                    system, Pathfinder balloons, Iridium based 
                    communication system
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2004 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
DOI:                10.1016/j.asr.2003.10.031
Bibliographic Code: 2004AdSpR..33.1627S

Abstract

The ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) Pathfinder Project is developing a small pumpkin balloon system and a new communication package based on the iridium satellites technology to demonstrate a global, 100-day duration capability that is scalable to the full-scale ULDB. A set of trade studies has been conducted to determine the volume, mass and cost of the balloon system to support up to 90 kg payload mass to an altitude of 35 km. The Pathfinder test balloons will provide valuable data in the development of performance models for future ULDB flights. The iridium based communication package will include a power subsystem, a command and data-handling unit, a GPS receiver, and an iridium L-Band Transceiver (LBT) for global communications. The flight data will include, at a minimum: latitude, longitude, altitude, horizontal and vertical speeds, heading, time, and other balloon performance parameters (i.e., system voltages, temperatures, etc.). Although the system will be designed for global launch capability, initial flights will be launched from the proposed full-scale ULDB mission launch locations. This paper will present and discuss the initial series of trade studies conducted for the development of the pathfinder balloon and the design concept of the iridium based communication package.


Title:              Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large binocular 
                    telescope
Authors:            Riccardi, Armando; Brusa, Guido;
                    Salinari, Piero; Busoni, Simone;
                    Lardiere, Oliver; Ranfagni, Piero;
                    Gallieni, Daniele; Biasi, Roberto;
                    Andrighettoni, Mario; Miller, Steve;
                    Mantegazza, Paolo
Affiliation:        AA(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri/INAF 
                    (Italy)), AB(Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri/INAF (Italy) and Stewart Observatory/Univ. 
                    of Arizona (USA)), AC(Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri/INAF (Italy)), AD(Osservatorio Astrofisico 
                    di Arcetri/INAF (Italy)), AE(Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri/INAF (Italy)), 
                    AF(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri/INAF 
                    (Italy)), AG(ADS International Srl (Italy)), 
                    AH(MicroGate Srl (Italy)), AI(MicroGate Srl 
                    (Italy)), AJ(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona 
                    (USA)), AK(Politecnico di Milano (Italy))
Publication:        Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems and 
                    Applications.  Edited by Tyson, Robert K.; 
                    Lloyd-Hart, Michael.  Proceedings of the SPIE, 
                    Volume 5169, pp. 159-168 (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   12/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.511374
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.5169..159R

Abstract

The two 911mm-diameter adaptive secondary (AS) mirrors for the Large Binocular telescope (LBT) are currently under construction. The design of the units has been based on the extensive experience made on the MMT adaptive secondary mirror during laboratory tests and telescope runs. Mechanics, electronics and control logic have been revised to improve performances and reliability. Each unit has 672 electro-magnetic force actuators. They control the figure of the Gregorian secondary 1.6mm-thick mirrors with an internal loop using the signal of co-located capacitive sensors. The improvement in the computational power of the on-board control electronics allows to use it as real-time computer for wavefront reconstruction. We present the progress of the final unit construction and the preliminary laboratory results obtained with a 45-actuator sub-system used to test the new features introduced in the electronics and mechanics of LBT adaptive secondary mirrors.


Title:              Development of the first-light AO system for the 
                    large binocular telescope
Authors:            Esposito, Simone; Tozzi, Andrea;
                    Puglisi, Alfio; Fini, Luca; Stefanini, Paolo;
                    Salinari, Piero; Gallieni, Daniele; Storm, Jesper
Affiliation:        AA(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri/INAF 
                    (Italy)), AB(Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri/INAF (Italy)), AC(Osservatorio Astrofisico 
                    di Arcetri/INAF (Italy)), AD(Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri/INAF (Italy)), 
                    AE(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri/INAF 
                    (Italy)), AF(Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri/INAF (Italy)), AG(ADS International Srl 
                    (Italy)), AH(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems and 
                    Applications.  Edited by Tyson, Robert K.; 
                    Lloyd-Hart, Michael.  Proceedings of the SPIE, 
                    Volume 5169, pp. 149-158 (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   12/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
DOI:                10.1117/12.511503
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.5169..149E

Abstract

The LBT Adaptive first light is foreseen for summer 2004. The first light AO system will be part of the Acquisition Guiding and Wavefront sensor unit (AGW) placed at the front bent Gregorian Foci of the telescope. The development and construction of the AO system is an undergoing process at Arcetri Observatory. The main features of the system are: the use of an adaptive secondary mirror with 672 actuators, the adoption of a pyramid wavefront sensor with a maximum sampling of 30x30 subaperture and the use of a small (400x320mm) movable wavefront sensor unit for reference star acquisition. After a brief description of the system the paper report about the progresses made in the design, realization and lab testing of the various parts of the AO system. In particular we describe the new beams configuration for the wavefront sensor board, the lab prototype of the sensor opto-mechanics, the sensor fast camera and its controller, the glass pyramid, the AO system real time and control software.


Title:              Nova in M33
Authors:            Schwarz, G. J.; Wagner, R. M.; Starrfield, S.;
                    Szkody, P.
Publication:        IAU Circ., 8234, 1 (2003).  Edited by Green, D. W. 
                    E. (IAUC Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2003
Origin:             IAUC
Objects:            N in M33
Bibliographic Code: 2003IAUC.8234....1S

Abstract

IAUC 8234 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.


Title:              Nova Sagittarii 2003 No. 2
Authors:            Ruch, G.; Polomski, E.; Woodward, C. E.;
                    Wagner, R. M.; Starrfield, S.; Brown, N. J.
Publication:        IAU Circ., 8204, 2 (2003).  Edited by Green, D. W. 
                    E. (IAUC Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2003
Origin:             CBAT
Objects:            N Sgr 2003 No. 2
Bibliographic Code: 2003IAUC.8204....2R

Abstract

IAUC 8204 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.


Title:              V838 Monocerotis
Authors:            Wagner, R. M.; Schwarz, G.; Starrfield, S.;
                    Munari, U.; Giro, E.; Siviero, A.;
                    Henden, A.; Szkody, P.; Bond, H.
Publication:        IAU Circ., 8202, 1 (2003).  Edited by Green, D. W. 
                    E. (IAUC Homepage)
Publication Date:   09/2003
Origin:             CBAT
Objects:            V838 Mon
Bibliographic Code: 2003IAUC.8202....1W

Abstract

IAUC 8202 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.


Title:              LINC/NIRVANA - The LBT Near-Infrared Interferometric 
                    Camera
Authors:            Straubmeier, C.; Eckart, A.; Bertram, T.; Herbst, T.
Publication:        Astronomische Nachrichten, Supplementary Issue 1, 
                    Proceedings of the Galactic Center Workshop 2002 - 
                    The central 300 parsecs of the Milky Way., p.577-581
Publication Date:   09/2003
Origin:             ADS
DOI:                10.1002/asna.200385092
Bibliographic Code: 2003ANS...324..577S

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              V4743 Sagittarii
Authors:            Wagner, R. M.; Starrfield, S. G.; Rohrbach, J.;
                    Bond, H.; Karam, A.; Monard, B.; Bolt, G.;
                    Ishioka, R.; Uemura, M.; Kato, T.
Publication:        IAU Circ., 8176, 3 (2003).  Edited by Green, D. W. 
                    E. (IAUC Homepage)
Publication Date:   08/2003
Origin:             CBAT
Objects:            V4743 Sgr
Bibliographic Code: 2003IAUC.8176....3W

Abstract

IAUC 8176 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.


Title:              The Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic 
                    Instrument (PEPSI) for the LBT
Authors:            Strassmeier, K. G.; Hofmann, A.; Woche, M.
Publication:        Astronomische Nachrichten, Supplementary Issue 3, 
                    Vol. 324, Short Contributions of the Annual 
                    Scientific Meeting of the Astronomische Gesellschaft 
                    in Freiburg, September 15-20, 2003, p.28
Publication Date:   07/2003
Origin:             ADS
Bibliographic Code: 2003ANS...324...28S

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              The ICE spectrograph for PEPSI at the LBT: 
                    preliminary optical design
Authors:            Pallavicini, Roberto; Zerbi, Filippo M.;
                    Spano, Paolo; Conconi, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Ruben;
                    Molinari, Emilio; Strassmeier, Klaus G.
Affiliation:        AA(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo 
                    (Italy)), AB(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera 
                    (Italy)), AC(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di 
                    Palermo (Italy)), AD(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico 
                    di Brera (Italy)), AE(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico 
                    di Brera (Italy)), AF(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico 
                    di Brera (Italy)), AG(Astrophysikalisches Institut 
                    Potsdam (Germany))
Publication:        Instrument Design and Performance for 
                    Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by 
                    Iye, Masanori; Moorwood, Alan F. M.    Proceedings 
                    of the SPIE, Volume 4841, pp. 1345-1356 (2003). 
                    (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   03/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4841.1345P

Abstract

We present a preliminary design study for a high-resolution echelle spectrograph (ICE) to be used with the spectropolarimeter PEPSI under development at the LBT. In order to meet the scientific requirements and take full advantage of the peculiarities of the LBT (i.e. the binocular nature and the adaptive optics capabilities), we have designed a fiber-fed bench mounted instrument for both high resolution (R $,1xm (B100,000; non-AO polarimetric and integral light modes) and ultra-high resolution (R $,1xm(B 300,000; AO integral light mode). In both cases, 4 spectra per order (two for each primary mirror) shall be accomodated in a 2-dimensional cross dispersed echelle format. In order to obtain a resolution-slit product of $,1xm(B 100,000 as required by the science case, we have considered two alternative designs, one with two R4 echelles in series and the other with a sigle R4 echelle and fiber slicing. A white-pupil design, VPH cross-dispersers and two cameras of different focal length for the AO and non-AO modes are adopted in both cases. It is concluded that the single-echelle fiber-slicer solution has to be preferred in terms of performances, complexity and cost. It can be implemented at the LBT in two phases, with the long-camera AO mode added in a second phase depending on the availability of funds and the time-scale for implementation of the AO system.


Title:              Cryogenic MOS-unit for LUCIFER
Authors:            Hofmann, Reiner; Mandel, Holger;
                    Seifert, Walter; Seltmann, Andreas;
                    Thatte, Niranjan A.; Tomono, Daigo; Weisz, Harald
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische 
                    (Germany)), AB(Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Koenigstuhl/Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)), 
                    AC(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Koenigstuhl/Univ. 
                    Heidelberg (Germany)), AD(Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Koenigstuhl/Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)), 
                    AE(Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische 
                    Physik (Germany)), AF(Max-Planck-Institut fuer 
                    extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)), 
                    AG(Ingenierbuero fuer den Maschinenbau (Germany))
Publication:        Instrument Design and Performance for 
                    Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by 
                    Iye, Masanori; Moorwood, Alan F. M.    Proceedings 
                    of the SPIE, Volume 4841, pp. 1295-1305 (2003). 
                    (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   03/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4841.1295H

Abstract

We present a system for the exchange and handling of cold field masks in LUCIFER, the near infrared camera and spectrograph for the LBT. Inside the LUCIFER cryostat, 10 field-stop and long-slit masks, and 23 multi-slit masks are stored in a stationary and an exchangeable cabinet respectively. With LUCIFER at operating temperature, the exchangeable cabinet with its multi-slit masks can be transferred from the LUCIFER cryostat to an auxiliary cryostat, and a second cabinet harboring the newly made, pre-cooled masks can be transferred back to LUCIFER from a second auxiliary cryostat. Inside LUCIFER, a robot transports the individual masks from their storage position in the cabinet to the focal plane and inserts them in a mask mount where they are centered on two pins. The position accuracy of the masks in the focal plane is anticipated to be better than +/- 10 $,1'<(Bm. A mechanism which locks the masks in their cabinets and releases only the one connected to the transport robot permits mask exchange in arbitrary orientation of the cryostat.


Title:              LUCIFER: a Multi-Mode NIR Instrument for the LBT
Authors:            Seifert, Walter; Appenzeller, Immo;
                    Baumeister, Harald; Bizenberger, Peter;
                    Bomans, Dominik; Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen;
                    Grimm, Bernard; Herbst, Tom; Hofmann, Reiner;
                    Juette, Marcus; Laun, Werner; Lehmitz, Michael;
                    Lemke, Roland; Lenzen, Rainer; Mandel, Holger;
                    Polsterer, K.; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer;
                    Schuetze, A.; Seltmann, Andreas;
                    Thatte, Niranjan A.; Weiser, Peter; Xu, Wenli
Affiliation:        AA(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Koenigstuhl/Univ. 
                    Heidelberg (Germany)), AB(Landessternwarte 
                    heidelberg-Koenigstuhl/Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)), 
                    AC(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AD(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AE(Astronomie Institut der Ruhr-Univ. Bochum 
                    (Germany)), AF(Astronomie Institut der Ruhr-Univ. 
                    Bochum (Germany)), AG(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AH(Max-Planck-Institut fur 
                    Astronomie (Germany)), AI(Max-Planck-Institut fuer 
                    extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)), AJ(Astronomie 
                    Institut der Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)), 
                    AK(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AL(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Koenigstuhl/Univ. 
                    Heidelberg (Germany)), AM(Astronomie Institut der 
                    Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)), AN(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fur Astronomie (Germany)), AO(Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Koenigstuhl/Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)), 
                    AP(Astronomie Institut der Ruhr-Univ. Bochum 
                    (Germany)), AQ(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany)), AR(Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Koenigstuhl/Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)), 
                    AS(Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Koenigstuhl/Univ. 
                    Heidelberg (Germany)), AT(Max-Planck-Institut fuer 
                    extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)), 
                    AU(Fachhochschule fuer Technik und Gestaltung 
                    (Germany)), AV(Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie 
                    (Germany) and Landessternwarte 
                    Heidelberg-Koenigstuhl/Univ. Heidelberg (Germany))
Publication:        Instrument Design and Performance for 
                    Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by 
                    Iye, Masanori; Moorwood, Alan F. M.    Proceedings 
                    of the SPIE, Volume 4841, pp. 962-973 (2003). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   03/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4841..962S

Abstract

LUCIFER (LBT NIR-Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral-Field Unit for Extragalactic Research) is a NIR spectrograph and imager for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona. It is built by a consortium of five German institutes and will be one of the first light instruments for the LBT. Later, a second copy for the second mirror of the telescope will follow. Both instruments will be mounted at the bent Gregorian foci of the two individual telescope mirrors. The final design of the instrument is presently in progress. LUCIFER will work at cryogenic temperature in the wavelength range from 0.9 $,1'<(Bm to 2.5 $,1'<(Bm. It is equipped with three exchangeable cameras for imaging and spectroscopy: two of them are optimized for seeing-limited conditions, the third camera for the diffraction-limited case with the LBT adaptive secondary mirror working. The spectral resolution will allow for OH suppression. Up to 33 exchangeable masks will be available for longslit and multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) over the full field of view (FOV). The detector will be a Rockwell HAWAII-2 HgCdTe-array.


Title:              LBC: the prime focus optical imagers at the LBT 
                    telescope
Authors:            Pedichini, Fernando; Giallongo, Emanuele;
                    Ragazzoni, Roberto; Di Paola, Andrea;
                    Fontana, Adriano; Speziali, Roberto;
                    Farinato, Jacopo; Baruffolo, Andrea;
                    Magagna, Carlo E.; Diolaiti, Emiliano;
                    Pasian, Fabio; Smareglia, Riccardo;
                    Anaclerio, Enzo; Gallieni, Daniele;
                    Lazzarini, Paolo G.
Affiliation:        AA(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), 
                    AB(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), 
                    AC(INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AD(Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma 
                    (Italy)), AE(Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma 
                    (Italy)), AF(Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma 
                    (Italy)), AG(INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AH(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico 
                    di Padova (Italy)), AI(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico 
                    di Padova (Italy)), AJ(Univ. degli Studi di Padova 
                    (Italy)), AK(Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy)), 
                    AL(Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy)), AM(ADS 
                    International S.r.L. (Italy)), AN(ADS International 
                    Srl (Italy)), AO(ADS International Srl (USA))
Publication:        Instrument Design and Performance for 
                    Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by 
                    Iye, Masanori; Moorwood, Alan F. M.    Proceedings 
                    of the SPIE, Volume 4841, pp. 815-826 (2003). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   03/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4841..815P

Abstract

The Large Binocular Camera (LBC) is the double optical imager that will be installed at the prime foci of the Large Binocular Telescope (2x8.4 m). Four Italian observatories are cooperating in this project: Rome (CCD Camera), Arcetri-Padua (Optical Corrector) and Trieste (Software). LBC is composed by two separated large field (27 arcmin FOV) cameras, one optimized for the UBV bands and the second for the VRIZ bands. An optical corrector balances the aberrations induced by the fast (F#=1.14) parabolic primary mirror of LBT, assuring that the 80% of the PSF encircled energy falls inside one pixel for more of the 90% of the field. Each corrector uses six lenses with the first having a diameter of 80cm and the third with an aspherical surface. Two filter wheels allow the use of 8 filters. The two channels have similar optical designs satisfying the same requirements, but differ in the lens glasses: fused silica for the "blue" arm and BK7 for the "red" one. The two focal plane cameras use an array of four 4290 chips (4.5x2 K) provided by Marconi optimized for the maximum quantum efficiency (85%) in each channel. The sampling is 0.23 arcseconds/pixel. The arrays are cooled by LN2 cryostats assuring 24 hours of operation. Here we present a description of the project and its current status including a report about the Blue camera and its laboratory tests. This instrument is planned to be the first light instrument of LBT.


Title:              Blue and red channels of LBC: a status report on the 
                    optics and mechanics
Authors:            Diolaiti, Emiliano; Ragazzoni, Roberto;
                    Pedichini, Fernando; Speziali, Roberto;
                    Farinato, Jacopo; Gallieni, Daniele;
                    Anaclerio, Enzo; Lazzarini, Paolo G.;
                    Tomelleri, Raffaele; Rossettini, Pierfrancesco;
                    Giallongo, Emanuele
Affiliation:        AA(Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy)), 
                    AB(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy) and 
                    Max-Planck-Institut für AStronomie (Germany)), 
                    AC(Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), 
                    AD(Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy)), 
                    AE(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AF(ADS International Srl (Italy)), AG(ADS 
                    International Srl (Italy)), AH(ADS International Srl 
                    (Italy)), AI(Studio Tecnico Tomelleri s.a.s. 
                    (Italy)), AJ(Studio Tecnico Tomelleri s.a.s. 
                    (Italy)), AK(Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma 
                    (Italy))
Publication:        Instrument Design and Performance for 
                    Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by 
                    Iye, Masanori; Moorwood, Alan F. M.    Proceedings 
                    of the SPIE, Volume 4841, pp. 552-563 (2003). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   03/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4841..552D

Abstract

The Large Binocular Camera (LBC) is a double prime focus station to be mounted on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The two channels, called Blue and Red, are optimized for the UB and VRIZ bands respectively and are characterized by two optical correctors with very fast focal ratio (F/1.45) and challenging optical and mechanical specifications. We present here a review of the optical and mechanical design of both the optical correctors and report on the current status of the manufacturing and integration.


Title:              Optical Design for a Thermal Infrared Wide-field 
                    Camera for the Large Binocular Telescope
Authors:            Dietzsch, Eberhard; Stecklum, Bringfried;
                    Pfau, Werner; Henning, Thomas F. E.
Affiliation:        AA(), AB(Thueringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg 
                    (Germany)), AC(Univ. Sternwarte Jena (Germany) and 
                    Astrophysikalisches Institut (Germany)), 
                    AD(Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (Germany))
Publication:        Instrument Design and Performance for 
                    Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by 
                    Iye, Masanori; Moorwood, Alan F. M.    Proceedings 
                    of the SPIE, Volume 4841, pp. 477-482 (2003). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   03/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4841..477D

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) will provide unique observing capabilities in terms of angular resolution and field size. The Fizeau combination of the beams from the two telescope apertures produces an intermediate image which shall be imaged onto a detector array. For this purpose, we designed an optical instrument, the thermal infrared wide-field camera described below. During its design, special care was taken to properly treat the synthetic aperture. The result is a catadioptric optical system with interchangable magnifications matched to the spectral regions around 10 and 20 $,1'<(Bm. We present the optical design along with the image analysis.


Title:              Overview of instrumentation for the large binocular 
                    telescope
Authors:            Wagner, Robert M.
Affiliation:        AA(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory/Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA))
Publication:        Instrument Design and Performance for 
                    Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by 
                    Iye, Masanori; Moorwood, Alan F. M.    Proceedings 
                    of the SPIE, Volume 4841, pp. 31-42 (2003). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   03/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4841...31W

Abstract

An overview of the 3 facility instruments and 2 strategic interferometric instruments under construction for the Large Binocular Telescope is presented. Planned optical instrumentation includes the Large Binocular Camera (LBC), a pair of wide-field (25' x 25') UB/VRI optimized mosaic CCD imagers at the prime focus, and the MultiObject Double Spectrograph (MODS), a pair of dual-beam blue-red optimized longslit spectrographs mounted at the straight-through F/15 Gregorian focus incorporating multiple slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy over a 5' field and spectral resolutions of 2000-8000. Infrared instrumentation includes the LBT Near-IR Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research (LUCIFER), a modular near-infrared (0.9-2.5 $,1'<(Bm) imager and spectrograph pair mounted at a bent interior focal station and designed for seeing limited (FOV: 4' x 4') and diffraction limited (FOV: 0.5' x 0.5') imaging and longslit spectroscopy, seeing limited multiobject spectroscopy utilizing cooled slit masks, and optional diffraction limited integral field spectroscopy. Strategic instruments under development for the remaining two combined focal stations include an interferometric cryogenic beam combiner with NIR and thermal IR instruments for Fizeau imaging and nulling interferometry and an optical bench beam combiner with visible and NIR imagers utilizing in the future multi-conjugate adaptive optics for angular resolutions as high as 5 mas at a wavelength of 0.5 $,1'<(Bm. The availability of all these instruments mounted simultaneously on the LBT permits flexible scheduling and improved operational support.


Title:              PEPSI spectro-polarimeter for the LBT
Authors:            Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Hofmann, Axel;
                    Woche, Manfred F.; Rice, John B.;
                    Keller, Christoph U.; Piskunov, N. E.;
                    Pallavicini, Roberto
Affiliation:        AA(Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (USA)), 
                    AB(Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (USA)), 
                    AC(Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (USA)), 
                    AD(Brandon Univ. (Canada)), AE(National Solar 
                    Observatory (USA)), AF(Uppsala Astronomical 
                    Observatory (Sweden)), AG(Osservatorio Astronomico 
                    di Palermo (Italy))
Publication:        Polarimetry in Astronomy.  Edited by Silvano 
                    Fineschi .  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4843, 
                    pp. 180-189 (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4843..180S

Abstract

PEPSI (Postham Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument) is to use the unique feature of the LBT and its powerful double mirror configuration to provide high and extremely high spectral resolution full-Stokes four-vector spectra in the wavelength range 450-1100nm. For the given aperture of 8.4m in single mirror mode and 11.8m in double mirror mode, and at a spectral resolution of 40,000-300,000 as designed for the fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph, a polarimetric accuracy between 10-4 and 10-2 can be reached for targets with visual magnitudes of up to 17th magnitude. A polarimetric accuracy better than 10-4 can only be reached for either targets brighter than approximately 10th magnitude together wiht a substantial trade-off wiht the spectral resolution or with spectrum deconvolution techniques. At 10-2, however, we will be able to observe the brightest AGNs down to 17th magnitude.


Title:              LBT facility SCIDAR: recent results
Authors:            McKenna, Daniel L.; Avila, Remy; Hill, John M.;
                    Hippler, Stefan; Salinari, Piero;
                    Stanton, Paul C.; Weiss, Robert
Affiliation:        AA(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AB(Instituto de Astronomía/UNAM (Mexico)), 
                    AC(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AD(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AE(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AF(Alacron, Inc. (USA)), AG(Max-Planck-Institut für 
                    Astronomie (Germany))
Publication:        Adaptive Optical System Technologies II.  Edited by 
                    Wizinowich, Peter L.; Bonaccini, Domenico. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4839, pp. 825-836 
                    (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4839..825M

Abstract

We present the design of and recent results from the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) facility SCIDAR. To our knowledge, this work will produce the first SCIDAR designed as a user instrument for routine seeing measurements in support of telescope operations. Using a commercial, off-the-shelf approach, we have minimized the resources required for system construction.


Title:              LBT adaptive secondary electronics
Authors:            Biasi, Roberto; Andrighettoni, Mario;
                    Veronese, Daniele; Biliotti, Valdemaro;
                    Fini, Luca; Riccardi, Armando;
                    Mantegazza, Paolo; Gallieni, Daniele
Affiliation:        AA(Microgate S.r.l. (Italy)), AB(Microgate S.r.l. 
                    (Italy)), AC(Microgate S.r.l. (Italy)), 
                    AD(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AE(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AF(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AG(Politecnico di Milano (Italy)), AH(ADS 
                    International S.r.l. (Italy))
Publication:        Adaptive Optical System Technologies II.  Edited by 
                    Wizinowich, Peter L.; Bonaccini, Domenico. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4839, pp. 772-782 
                    (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4839..772B

Abstract

The adaptive secondary mirror is a fundamental part in the LBT adaptive optics architecture. The thin, continuous mirror is controlled by 672 electromagnetic actuators (voice coil motors) with local position feedback (capacitive sensor) and allows to perform from tip-tilt to high order wavefront correction, but also chopping. The adaptive secondary is controlled by a DSP-based dedicated electronics. The control electronics does not only implement the mirror position control tasks, but does also realize the Real Time Reconstructor (RTR). The control system, while maintaining a similar architecture to the MMT adaptive secondary one, shows a substantial enhancement in terms of computational power, rising in the range of hundreds of Gigaflops. This allows to minimize the computational time required to apply the wavefront correction pattern from the wavefront sensor acquisition, even in case of high order reconstructor dynamics. The electronics is housed in compact cooled crates placed in the adaptive secondary hub. Apart from the power supply lines, it is connected to the other components of the adaptive control system just through a very high speed fiber optic link, capable of 2.9 Gigabit/s of actual data throughput. The control system has been designed according to modular concept, so that the number of channels can be easily increased or reduced for adapting the electronics to different correctors. A substantial effort has been dedicated to the flexibility and on-field configurability of system. In this frame, the same electronics (or part of it) can be easily adapted to become the building block for the data processing unit required for Multi-Conjugated Adaptive Optics


Title:              LBT adaptive secondary units final design and 
                    construction
Authors:            Gallieni, Daniele; Anaclerio, Enzo;
                    Lazzarini, Paolo G.; Ripamonti, Angelo;
                    Spairani, Roberto; Del Vecchio, Ciro;
                    Salinari, Piero; Riccardi, Armando;
                    Stefanini, Paolo; Biasi, Roberto
Affiliation:        AA(ADS International S.r.l. (Italy)), AB(ADS 
                    International S.r.l. (Italy)), AC(ADS International 
                    S.r.l. (Italy)), AD(ADS International S.r.l. 
                    (Italy)), AE(SOLARIA Engineering (Italy)), 
                    AF(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AG(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AH(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AI(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AJ(Microgate S.r.l. (Italy))
Publication:        Adaptive Optical System Technologies II.  Edited by 
                    Wizinowich, Peter L.; Bonaccini, Domenico. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4839, pp. 765-771 
                    (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4839..765G

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope will perform its first level AO correction at visual wavelengths by the two Gregorian secondary mirrors. Each unit is made by a 911 mm diameter and 1.6 mm thick Zerodur shell which shape is controlled by 672 electromagnetic actuators at 1 kHz rate. The shape of each mirror is referred to a Zerodur 50 mm thick backplate through a set of capacitive sensors co-located with the actuators. Each adaptive secondary unit embeds its real time computer for actuator control and communication. Each unit is aligned into the secondary hub by a 6 d.o.f. hexapod system. The construction of the AO units started this year, while the hexapods have been completed in 2001. We present in this paper the final design of the adaptive secondary systems with particular emphasis on the modifications that we made based on the MMT adaptive secondary experience. We will also report the first results of the subsystems development tests.


Title:              Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large Binocular 
                    Telescope
Authors:            Riccardi, Armando; Brusa, Guido;
                    Salinari, Piero; Gallieni, Daniele;
                    Biasi, Roberto; Andrighettoni, Mario;
                    Martin, Hubert M.
Affiliation:        AA(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AB(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and Ctr. for 
                    Astronomical Adaptive Optics/Univ. of Arizona 
                    (USA)), AC(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AD(ADS International S.r.l. (Italy)), 
                    AE(Microgate S.r.l. (Italy)), AF(Microgate S.r.l. 
                    (Italy)), AG(Ctr. for Astronomical Adaptive 
                    Optics/Univ. of Arizona (USA))
Publication:        Adaptive Optical System Technologies II.  Edited by 
                    Wizinowich, Peter L.; Bonaccini, Domenico. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4839, pp. 721-732 
                    (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4839..721R

Abstract

The two adaptive secondary (AS) mirrors for LBT (LBT672) represent the new generation of the AS technology. Their design is based on the experience earned during the extensive tests of the previous generation unit (the MMT AS mirror). Both the mechanics and the electronics have been revised, improving the stability, reliability, maintenance and computational power of the system. The deformable mirror of each unit consists of a 1.6mm-thick Zerodur shell having a diameter of 911mm. The front surface is concave to match the Gregorian design of the telescope. Its figure is controlled by 672 electro-magnetic force actuators that are supported and cooled by an aluminum plate. The actuator forces are controlled using a combination of feed-forward and de-centralized closed loop compensation, thanks to the feedback signals from the 672 co-located capacitive position sensors. The surface reference for the capacitive sensors is a 50mm-thick Zerodur shell faced to the back surface of the thin mirror and rigidly connected to the support plate of the actuators. Digital real-time control and unit monitoring is obtained using new custom-made on-board electronics based on new generation 32bit floating-point DSPs. The total computational power (121 Gflop/s) of the LBT672 units allows using the control electronics as wave-front computer without any reduction of the actuator control capability. We report the details of the new features introduced in the LBT672 design and the preliminary laboratory results obtained on a prototype used to test them. Finally the facility in Arcetri to test the final LBT672 units is presented.


Title:              A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT
Authors:            Ragazzoni, Roberto; Herbst, Tom M.;
                    Gaessler, Wolfgang; Andersen, David;
                    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Baruffolo, Andrea;
                    Baumeister, Harald; Bizenberger, Peter;
                    Diolaiti, Emiliano; Esposito, Simone;
                    Farinato, Jacopo; Rix, Hans W.;
                    Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Riccardi, Armando;
                    Salinari, Piero; Soci, Roberto;
                    Vernet-Viard, Elise; Xu, Wenli
Affiliation:        AA(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and 
                    Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Italy)), 
                    AB(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AC(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AD(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AE(Univ. degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)), 
                    AF(Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Italy)), 
                    AG(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AH(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AI(Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy)), 
                    AJ(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AK(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AL(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AM(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AN(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AO(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AP(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AQ(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AR(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Germany))
Publication:        Adaptive Optical System Technologies II.  Edited by 
                    Wizinowich, Peter L.; Bonaccini, Domenico. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4839, pp. 536-543 
                    (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4839..536R

Abstract

In order to achieve moderate Field of View (2 arcmin in diameter) and nearly diffraction limited capabilities, at the reddest portion of the visible spectrum in the interferometric mode of LBT, two sophisticated MCAO channels are required. These are being designed to perform a detailed correction of the atmospheric turbulence through three deformable mirrors per telescope arm: the secondary adaptive mirror and two commercial piezostack mirrors, leading to an overall number of degree of freedom totaling ~ 3000. A combination of numerical and optical coaddition of light collected from natural reference stars located inside the scientific Field of View and in an annular region, partially vignetted, and extending up to $,1xm(B 6 arcmin in diameter, allows for such a performance with individual loops characterized by a much smaller number of degree of freedom, making the real-time computation, although still challenging, to more reasonable levels. We implement in the MCAO channel the dual Field of View layer-oriented approach using natural guide stars, only allowing for limited, but significant, sky coverage.


Title:              First Light Adaptive Optics System for Large 
                    Binocular Telescope
Authors:            Esposito, Simone; Tozzi, Andrea;
                    Ferruzzi, Debora; Carbillet, Marcel;
                    Riccardi, Armando; Fini, Luca;
                    Vérinaud, Christophe; Accardo, Matteo;
                    Brusa, Guido; Gallieni, Daniele;
                    Biasi, Roberto; Baffa, Carlo;
                    Biliotti, Valdemaro; Foppiani, Italo;
                    Puglisi, Alfio; Ragazzoni, Roberto;
                    Ranfagni, Piero; Stefanini, Paolo;
                    Salinari, Piero; Seifert, Walter; Storm, Jesper
Affiliation:        AA(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AB(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AC(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AD(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AE(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AF(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AG(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AH(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AI(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AJ(ADS International S.r.l. (Italy)), AK(Microgate 
                    S.r.l. (Italy)), AL(Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AM(Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy)), AN(Univ. degli Studi di Bologna 
                    (Italy)), AO(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AP(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AQ(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AR(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AS(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AT(Landessternwarte Heidelberg (Germany)), 
                    AU(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam (Germany))
Publication:        Adaptive Optical System Technologies II.  Edited by 
                    Wizinowich, Peter L.; Bonaccini, Domenico. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4839, pp. 164-173 
                    (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4839..164E

Abstract

The paper describes the design of the single conjugate Adaptive Optics system to be installed on the LBT telescope. This system will be located in the Acquisition, Guiding and Wavefront sensor unit (AGW) mounted at the front bent Gregorian focus of LBT. Two innovative key features of this system are the Adaptive Secondary Mirror and the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor. The secondary provides 672 actuators wavefront correction available at the various foci of LBT. Due to the adaptive secondary mirror there is no need to optically conjugate the pupil on the deformable mirror. This allows having a very short sensor optical path made up using small dimension refractive optics. The overall AO system has a transmission of 70 % and fits in a rectangle of about 400×320mm. The pyramid sensor allows having different pupil sampling using on-chip binning of the detector. Main pupil samplings for the LBT system are 30×30, 15×15 and 10×10. Reference star acquisition is obtained moving the wavefront sensor unit in a field of view of 3×2 arcmin. Computer simulations of the overall system performance show the good correction achievable in J, H, and K. In particular, in our configuration, the limiting magnitude of pyramid sensor results more than one magnitude fainter with respect to Shack- Hartmann sensor. This feature directly translates in an increased sky coverage that is, in K band, about doubled with respect to the same AO system using a Shack-Hartmann sensor.


Title:              Performance of the first-light adaptive optics 
                    system of LBT by means of CAOS simulations
Authors:            Carbillet, Marcel; Vérinaud, Christophe;
                    Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando;
                    Puglisi, Alfio; Femenía, Bruno; Fini, Luca
Affiliation:        AA(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri/INAF 
                    (Spain)), AB(Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri/INAF (Spain)), AC(Osservatorio Astrofisico 
                    di Arcetri/INAF (Spain)), AD(Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri/INAF (Spain)), 
                    AE(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri/INAF 
                    (Spain)), AF(Gran Telescopio Canarias/IAC (Italy)), 
                    AG(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy))
Publication:        Adaptive Optical System Technologies II.  Edited by 
                    Wizinowich, Peter L.; Bonaccini, Domenico. 
                    Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4839, pp. 131-139 
                    (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4839..131C

Abstract

This presentation reports the numerical simulations we have done in order to evaluate the performance of the first-light AO system of LBT. The simulation tool used for this purpose is the Software Package CAOS, applicable for a wide range of AO systems and for which a brief recall of the main features is made. The whole process of atmospheric propagation of light, wavefront sensing (using a complete model of the pyramid wavefront sensor), wavefront reconstruction using the LBT672 adaptive secondary mirror modes), and closing of the loop, is simulated. The results are given in terms of obtained Strehl ratios in J-, H-, and K-band. Estimation of the resulting sky-coverage in K-band for different regions of the sky are also expressed. A comparison with the performance that would be obtained by using a Shack-Hartmann sensor is presented, confirming the gain achievable with the pyramid sensor.


Title:              The correction of pistonic aberrations at the LBT: A 
                    near-infrared Fringe and Flexure Tracker for LINC
Authors:            Straubmeier, Christian; Eckart, Andreas;
                    Bertram, Thomas; Zealouk, L.; Wang, Y.
Affiliation:        AA(Univ. Koeln (Germany)), AB(Univ. Koeln 
                    (Germany)), AC(Univ. Koeln (Germany)), AD(Univ. 
                    Koeln (Germany)), AE(Univ. Koeln (Germany))
Publication:        Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II.  Edited by 
                    Wesley A. Traub .  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    4838, pp. 1271-1281 (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4838.1271S

Abstract

The I. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne is participating in an international collaboration with the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie in Heidelberg and the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri for the development of LINC/NIRVANA, the Near-Infrared/Visible Interferometric Camera for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). LINC/NIRVANA will be one of the two interferometric camera systems of the LBT and will operate at wavelengths from 0.6 $,1'<(Bm to 2.4 $,1'<(Bm, with the long wavelength regime between 1.0 $,1'<(Bm and 2.5 $,1'<(Bm being covered by LINC (LBT INterferometric Camera} and the shorter wavelengths part from 0.6 $,1'<(Bm to 1.0 $,1'<(Bm being processed by NIRVANA (Near-InfraRed/Visible Adaptive iNterferometer for Astronomy}. The main contributions of the Cologne institute to this camera will be the 77K dewar and the Fringe and Flexure Tracker (FFT) for the near-infrared part on the system. Detecting and correcting the fast pistonic aberrations of the atmosphere and the slow flexure of the instrument in a closed-loop operation, the presence and proper function of the FFT is mandatory for a time-stable image quality at highest interferometic resolutions. In order to get the best possible image correction for LINC, the FFT will be located inside the camera dewar at an interferometric focus close the one of the near-infrared science detector. Using simple optical elements it will continuously monitor the time-variable phase difference and pupil locations of the incoming wavefronts from the two arms of the twin-telescope. In this article we give a short overview of the camera concept of LINC and present the current status of the design and development of the FFT going on at our institute at the University of Cologne.


Title:              Bispectrum speckle interferometry and future 
                    long-baseline interferometry of the young bipolar 
                    outflow source S140 IRS1
Authors:            Preibisch, Thomas; Balega, Yuri;
                    Schertl, Dieter; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Weigelt, Gerd
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie 
                    (Germany)), AB(Special Astrophysical Observatory 
                    (Russia)), AC(Max-Planck-Institut fuer 
                    Radioastronomie (Germany)), AD(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fuer Radioastronomie (Germany)), 
                    AE(Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie 
                    (Germany))
Publication:        Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II.  Edited by 
                    Wesley A. Traub .  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    4838, pp. 1047-1054 (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4838.1047P

Abstract

We present bispectrum speckle interferometric observations of the deeply embedded protostellar outflow source S140 IRS1. Using the SAO 6 m telescope, we obtained a K-band image with diffraction-limited resolution of 76 mas, which is the highest resolution image of a young outflow source ever obtained in the infrared. Our image shows the circumstellar environment of S140 IRS1 in unprecedented detail and suggests that the central source is marginally resolved with a FWHM diameter of approximately 20 mas (approx 20 AU). The dominant feature is a bright extended and very clumpy structure pointing away from the central source in exactly the same direction as the blue-shifted CO outflow lobe. We interprete this feature as the clumpy inner surface of a partially evacuated cavity in the circumstellar envelope around IRS1, which has been excavated by the strong outflow from IRS1. In addition, we find several arc-like structures north-east of IRS 1, extended diffuse emission south of IRS 1, and four new point sources. The diffuse and fragmentary structures close to IRS 1 appear to trace circumstellar material swept up by energetic outflows. In combination with molecular line emission maps from the literature, our image provides direct confirmation that two distinct bipolar outflow systems continue to be driven from IRS 1 on scales between 3" and 100". Our speckle observations provide important complementary information for future long-baseline interferometric observations, for example with the LBT.


Title:              LINC-NIRVANA: a Fizeau beam combiner for the large 
                    binocular telescope
Authors:            Herbst, Tom; Ragazzoni, Roberto;
                    Andersen, David; Boehnhardt, H.;
                    Bizenberger, Peter; Eckart, Andreas;
                    Gaessler, W.; Rix, Hans-Walter;
                    Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Salinari, Piero;
                    Soci, R.; Straubmeier, Christian; Xu, W.
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AB(Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri (Italy) and 
                    Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AC(Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AD(Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AE(Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AF(Univ. Koeln (Germany)), AG(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fuer Astronomie (Germany)), AH(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fuer Astronomie (Germany)), AI(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fuer Astronomie (Germany)), AJ(Osservatorio 
                    Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AK(Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (Germany)), 
                    AL(Univ. Koeln (Germany)), AM(Max-Planck-Institut 
                    fuer Astronomie (Germany))
Publication:        Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II.  Edited by 
                    Wesley A. Traub.  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    4838, pp. 456-465 (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4838..456H

Abstract

Fizeau interferometry at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) offers significant advantages over other facilities in terms of spatial resolution, field of view, and sensitivity. We provide an update of the LINC-NIRVANA project, which aims to bring a near-infrared and visible wavelength Fizeau beam combiner to the LBT by late 2005. As with any complex instrument, a number of detailed requirements drive the final design adopted.


Title:              Performance of the restoration of interferometric 
                    images from the Large Binocular Telescope: the 
                    effects of angular coverage and partial adaptive 
                    optics correction
Authors:            Carbillet, Marcel; Correia, Serge;
                    Boccacci, Patrizia; Bertero, Mario
Affiliation:        AA(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AB(Univ. de Nice Sophia-Antipolis (France) and 
                    European Southern Observatory (Germany)), AC(Univ. 
                    degli Studi di Genova (Italy)), AD(Univ. degli Studi 
                    di Genova (Italy))
Publication:        Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II.  Edited by 
                    Wesley A. Traub.  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    4838, pp. 444-455 (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4838..444C

Abstract

This presentation reports the status of our study concerning the imaging properties of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) interferometer, and namely the effect of limited angular coverage and partial adaptive optics (AO) correction. The limitation in angular coverage, together with the correlated problem of angular smearing due to time-averaging of the interferometric images, is investigated for relevant cases depending on the declination of the observed object. Results are encouraging even in case of incomplete coverage. Partial AO-correction can result in a wide range of image quality, but can also create significant differences within a same field-of-view, especially between a suitable reference star to be used for post-observation multiple deconvolution and the observed object. Our study deals with both the problem of space-variance of the AO-corrected point-spread function, and that of global quality of the AO-correction. Uniformity, rather than global quality, is found to be the key-problem. After considering the single-conjugate AO case, we reach to some conclusions for the more interesting, and actually wide-field, case implying multi-conjugate AO. The whole study is performed on different types of object, from binary stars to diffuse objects, and a combined one with a high-dynamic range.


Title:              The large binocular telescope interferometer
Authors:            Hinz, Philip M.; Angel, James Roger P.;
                    McCarthy, Donald W., Jr.; Hoffman, William F.;
                    Peng, Chien Y.
Affiliation:        AA(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AB(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AC(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AD(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AE(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA))
Publication:        Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II.  Edited by 
                    Wesley A. Traub.  Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 
                    4838, pp. 108-112 (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4838..108H

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), with dual 8.4 m optics on a common mount, is unique among the large-aperture interferometers. Deformable secondaries on the telescope capable of adaptive atmospheric correction allow beam combination after only three warm reflections. The design allows the implementation of two powerful uses of interferometry: suppression of starlight (or nulling interferometry) and wide-field imaging (or Fizeau interferometry). Nulling will allow detection of extrasolar planetary systems (from either zodiacal emission or giant planets) down to solar system-equivalent levels for nearby stars. This will dramatically increase our knowledge of the prevalence and make-up of extrasolar planetary systems. Fizeau interferometry will allow imaging of even complex structure at the resolution of a 22.8 m telescope. To implement these two powerful techniques the University of Arizona and NASA are collaborating to build the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) a cryogenic instrument capable of sensitive interferometric observations in the infrared.


Title:              Fabrication of mirrors for the Magellan Telescopes 
                    and the Large Binocular Telescope
Authors:            Martin, Hubert M.; Allen, Richard G.;
                    Burge, James H.; Dettmann, Lee R.;
                    Ketelsen, Dean A.; Miller, Stephen M., III;
                    Sasian, Jose M.
Affiliation:        AA(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AB(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AC(Optical Sciences Ctr./Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AD(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AE(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AF(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AG(Optical Sciences Ctr./Univ. of Arizona (USA))
Publication:        Large Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by Oschmann, 
                    Jacobus M.; Stepp, Larry M.    Proceedings of the 
                    SPIE, Volume 4837, pp. 609-618 (2003). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4837..609M

Abstract

We describe the fabrication and testing of the 6.5 m f/1.25 primary mirrors for the Magellan telescopes and the 8.4 m f/1.14 primary mirrors for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). These mirrors, along with the 6.5 m MMT primary, are the fastest and most aspheric large mirrors made. Steward Observatory developed special methods to polish and measure these and other fast mirrors. We use a stressed-lap polishing tool to fit the aspheric surface while providing strong passive smoothing, and computer-generated holograms to verify the measurement of up to 1.4 mm peak-to-valley asphericity to an accuracy of 0.01%. The Magellan mirrors are diffraction-limited at visible wavelengths, with surface accuracies of about 20 nm rms on active supports. We are currently polishing the first LBT primary mirror and preparing to make the thin shells for the LBT adaptive secondary mirrors.


Title:              Completion of the large binocular telescope 
                    enclosure
Authors:            Teran, Jose; Slagle, James H.; Hill, John M.;
                    Neff, Daniel H.
Affiliation:        AA(M3 Engineering and Technology Corp. (USA)), 
                    AB(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AC(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory/Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA)), AD(M3 Engineering and Technology 
                    Corp. (USA))
Publication:        Large Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by Oschmann, 
                    Jacobus M.; Stepp, Larry M.    Proceedings of the 
                    SPIE, Volume 4837, pp. 217-224 (2003). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4837..217T

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) under construction on Mount Graham, Arizona is a unique instrument, which supports two 8.4-meter primary mirrors on the same mount. The telescope mirrors will provide a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 circular aperture plus a diffraction baseline of 22.8 meters. This unique instrument presented new enclosure challenges and configurations in order to accommodate the Owner"s design, telescope operating criteria and budget. The LBT enclosure completed in the summer of 2002 provides useful information on the planning, designing and construction of a telescope enclosure. The use of a team approach by the contractors, engineers, and project office has been successful in maintaining quality construction at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various systems implemented on the LBT enclosure and the lessons learned during the course of the design and construction.


Title:              Industrial contribution in design, manufacturing, 
                    and erection of large ground-based telescopes
Authors:            Marchiori, Gianpietro
Affiliation:        AA(European Industrial Engineering srl (Italy))
Publication:        Large Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by Oschmann, 
                    Jacobus M.; Stepp, Larry M.    Proceedings of the 
                    SPIE, Volume 4837, pp. 189-197 (2003). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4837..189M

Abstract

Industry is a bridge which links scientific thought with its concrete possibility to realize something operative and functional. In the last fifteen years, Astronomy has undergone a total revolution: telescopes are getting bigger and bigger and even more efficient. Enclosures are being more and more integrated into scientific performances. From NTT to VLT, from LBT to ALMA, to VST and to VISTA: there is always an industrial contribution in the development of the biggest astronomic projects. A comparison between scientific and technological research, a synergy that leads to the future.


Title:              Large Binocular Telescope project
Authors:            Hill, John M.; Salinari, Piero
Affiliation:        AA(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory/Univ. of 
                    Arizona (USA)), AB(INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di 
                    Arcetri (Italy))
Publication:        Large Ground-based Telescopes.  Edited by Oschmann, 
                    Jacobus M.; Stepp, Larry M.    Proceedings of the 
                    SPIE, Volume 4837, pp. 140-153 (2003). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   02/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4837..140H

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project is a collaboration between institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, and Ohio. The first of two 8.4-meter borosilicate honeycomb primary mirrors for LBT is being polished at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab this year. The second of the two 8.4-meter mirror blanks waits its turn in the polishing queue. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes adaptive infrared secondaries of a Gregorian design. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4-arcminute diameter field-of-view. These adaptive secondary mirrors with 672 voice-coil actuators are now in the early stages of fabrication. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4-meter primaries will reimage the two folded Gregorian focal planes to three central locations for phased array imaging. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arm spiders which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors as well as prime focus cameras. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The telescope structure was fabricated and pre-assembled in Italy by Ansaldo-Camozzi in Milan. The structure was disassembled, packed and shipped to Arizona. The enclosure was built on Mt. Graham and is ready for telescope installation.


Title:              Giant segmented adaptive mirrors: progress report
Authors:            Riccardi, Armando; Biasi, Roberto;
                    Brusa, Guido; Del Vecchio, Ciro;
                    Esposito, Simone; Gallieni, Daniele; Salinari, Piero
Affiliation:        AA(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy)), 
                    AB(MicroGate Srl (Italy)), AC(Univ. of Arizona 
                    (USA)), AD(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AE(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 
                    (Italy)), AF(ADS International Srl (Italy)), 
                    AG(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Italy))
Publication:        Future Giant Telescopes.  Edited by Angel, J. Roger 
                    P.; Gilmozzi, Roberto.  Proceedings of the SPIE, 
                    Volume 4840, pp. 246-257 (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   01/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4840..246R

Abstract

We show that the same technology developed for MMT and LBT Adaptive Secondary mirrors can be used for building segmented adaptive mirrors of essentially any size. This seems to be at the moment the most promising approach to provide the enormous number of degrees of freedom necessary for adaptive correction at visual wavelengths in giant telescopes. In this paper we recall the analytical formulation of the problem and we report recent numerical studies and initial experimental results obtained with prototype actuators for large adaptive segments.


Title:              Mechanical concepts for 30 m class telescopes
Authors:            Davison, Warren B.; Angel, James Roger P.
Affiliation:        AA(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AB(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA))
Publication:        Future Giant Telescopes.  Edited by Angel, J. Roger 
                    P.; Gilmozzi, Roberto.  Proceedings of the SPIE, 
                    Volume 4840, pp. 206-213 (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   01/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4840..206D

Abstract

The 20 20 Telescope is a 30 meter class telescope comprised of two 21.2m collector telescopes on a 100m circular track. Each collector telescope has a focal ratio of F: 0.7 and is comprised of seven 8.4 m segments. There is an instrument bridge that carries the combining instrument. The proposal for 20 20 is to have discrete combiner stations for 30,60,and 100 meter baselines. Additional focal stations are implemented for Nasmyth and bent Cassegrain. The Track has the same segmented construction and tracking motion on hydrostatic bearings as LBT. The collector telescope buildings will co-track and co-rotate on separate tracks. The 30m design has the same basic shape as a single 21 meter Collector but many aspects are different. The 30 meter telescope is a single hexagonal aperture with a primary at F: 0.5. There are 13 that are 8.74m hexagons and 6 half hexagons. The 30m telescope has primarily Nasmyth platforms behind the primary mirror. Both telescopes have a 30 meter equivalent circular aperture. Both telescopes have high structural performance, at 6.5 Hz and 5.3 Hz respectively. Both are balanced, and use similar designed components. Comparison of their characteristics and design differences can show the strengths and weaknesses of each.


Title:              Optics for the 20/20 telescope
Authors:            Martin, Hubert M.; Angel, James Roger P.;
                    Burge, James H.; Miller, Stephen M., III;
                    Sasian, Jose M.; Strittmatter, Peter A.
Affiliation:        AA(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AB(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AC(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AD(Steward Observatory/Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AE(Optical Sciences Ctr./Univ. of Arizona (USA)), 
                    AF(Optical Sciences Ctr./Univ. of Arizona (USA))
Publication:        Future Giant Telescopes.  Edited by Angel, J. Roger 
                    P.; Gilmozzi, Roberto.  Proceedings of the SPIE, 
                    Volume 4840, pp. 194-205 (2003). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   01/2003
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2003SPIE.4840..194M

Abstract

We present a plan for making the optics of a 21 m telescope that builds on advances in mirror design and fabrication developed for the Large Binocular Telescope and other large telescopes. The 21 m telescope, with a fast f/0.7 primary mirror made of only seven large honeycomb-sandwich segments and an adaptive secondary mirror with matching segments, is much stiffer than other designs and offers simpler and more accurate wavefront control. It can be a powerful stand-alone telescope, or one of a pair that move on a circular track to achieve coherent imaging with baselines up to 120 m (the 20/20 telescope). Each segment of the 21 m primary mirror is similar to an 8.4 m LBT primary, and each segment of the 2.1 m adaptive secondary mirror is similar to an LBT secondary. The off-axis segments of both mirrors can be made with the same methods and equipment currently used at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab, and can be polished with the same stressed-lap polishing system used for the LBT mirrors. A change in algorithm to accommodate the asymmetric surface is required, but no new hardware development is needed because the lap bending is similar to that for the LBT mirrors. Each segment can be measured interferometrically, with a combination reflective and diffractive null corrector producing an accurate template wavefront and alignment references for the segments.


Title:              Fringe tracking for VLTI and LBT
Authors:            Gai, M.; Bonino, D.; Corcione, L.;
                    Delage, L.; Gardiol, D.; Gennai, A.;
                    Lattanzi, M. G.; Loreggia, D.; Massone, G.;
                    Menardi, S.; Reynaud, F.
Affiliation:        AA(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) -- 
                    Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Str. 
                    Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy 
                    ), AB(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Str. Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy), AC(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Str. Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy), AD(Institut de Recherche en Communications Optiques et Microondes - C.N.R.S., avenue Albert Thomas 123 - 87060 Limoges Cedex, France), AE(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Str. Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy), AF(European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching b. München, Germany), AG(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Str. Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy), AH(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) -- Osser!
 vatorio Astronomico di Torino, Str. Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy), AI(Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) -- Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Str. Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy), AJ(Institut de Recherche en Communications Optiques et Microondes - C.N.R.S., avenue Albert Thomas 123 - 87060 Limoges Cedex, France), AK(European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching b. München, Germany) 

Publication:        Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana, v.74, 
                    p.130 (2003)
Publication Date:   00/2003
Origin:             MmSAI
Keywords:           Techniques: interferometric, Instrumentation: 
                    interferometers, Stars: fundamental parameters
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2003: SAIt
Bibliographic Code: 2003MmSAI..74..130G

Abstract

The Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino is developing a Fringe Sensor Unit (FSU) for VLTI, in collaboration with ESO. The requirements for interferometric observation at VLTI are reviewed, describing the function of an FSU and its interaction with the instrument complement. The cases analysed are FINITO and the PRIMA FSU. Their basic operating assumptions are described, deducing performance parameters as a function of the magnitude. Specifications for fringe tracking at LBT are deduced by comparison with the VLTI case and from general scientific requirements.


Title:              Stars Close to the Massive Black Hole at the Center 
                    of the Milky Way
Authors:            Mouawad, Nelly; Eckart, Andreas;
                    Pfalzner, Susanne; et al.
Publication:        Galaxies and Chaos, Edited by G. Contopoulos and N. 
                    Voglis, Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 626, 
                    p.302-312
Publication Date:   00/2003
Origin:             SPRINGER
Comment:            ISBN: 3-540-40470-8
Bibliographic Code: 2003LNP...626..302M

Abstract

Recent measurements of stellar velocities ([5], [7]) and variable X-ray emission [3] near the center of the Milky Way have already provided the strongest case for the presence of a super-massive black hole in our Galaxy. Information on the enclosed mass and stellar number density counts, in the central stellar cluster of the Galaxy, now allows to derive realistic potentials to study stellar orbits. We present the results of calculations using a 4 th -order Hermite integrator. They provide valuable additional information on the three dimensional distribution and dynamics of the He-Stars. We also discuss the importance of Newtonian peri-astron shifts for stellar orbits in the central cluster and how future observations with infrared interferometers (LBT, VLTI, Keck) [6] will help to improve our understanding of the dynamics and distribution of the stars in this region.


Title:              The Fasti Project
Authors:            Baffa, C.; Biliotti, V.; Checcucci, A.;
                    Gennari, S.; Giani, E.; Lisi, F.;
                    Gavrioussev, V.; Sozzi, M.; Marcucci, G.
Publication:        Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XII 
                    ASP Conference Series, Vol. 295, 2003 H. E. Payne, 
                    R. I. Jedrzejewski, and R. N. Hook, eds., p.355
Publication Date:   00/2003
Origin:             AUTHOR
Bibliographic Code: 2003ASPC..295..355B

Abstract

Fasti is a controller architecture originally developed for fast infrared astronomical array detectors, and intended to be powerful and extendible. It is suitable to be used with both DRO and CCD detectors and it is also well suited for very fast optical detectors, as those used in Adaptive Optics. In the framework of the LBT project, a L3CCD version is in development. More information can be found at

http://www.arcetri.astro.it/irlab/fasti.



Title:              Interferometry with the Large Binocular Telescope
Authors:            Herbst, T.
Affiliation:        AA(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg 
                    Germany)
Publication:        Astrophysics and Space Science, v. 286, Issue 1, p. 
                    45-53 (2003). (Ap&SS Homepage)
Publication Date:   00/2003
Origin:             KLUWER
Bibliographic Code: 2003Ap&SS.286...45H

Abstract

The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) will be the largest single telescope in the world when it is completed in 2005. The unique structure of the telescope incorporates two, 8.4 meter diameter primary mirrors on a 14.4 meter center-to-center mounting. This configuration provides the equivalent collecting area of a 12 meter telescope, and when combined coherently, the two optical paths offer very interesting possibilities for interferometry. Two initial interferometric instruments are planned for the LBT. A group basedat the University of Arizona is constructing LBTI, a pupil-plane, nulling beam combiner operating in the thermal infrared N band. This instrument will search for and measure zodiacal light in candidate stellar systems for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and Darwin missions. Expansion ports can accomodate additional instruments. A second group, based in Heidelberg, Arcetri, and Köln, is building LINC-NIRVANA, a near-infrared Fizeau-mode beam combiner. This type of observation preserves phase information and allows true imagery over a wide field of view. Using state-of-the-art detector arrays, coupled with advanced adaptive optics, LINC-NIRVANA will deliver the sensitivity of a 12 m telescope and the spatial resolution of a 23 m telescope, over a field of view up to 2 arcminutes square.


Title:              LUCIFER control software: an OO approach using CORBA 
                    technology
Authors:            Jütte, Marcus; Polsterer, Kai;
                    Lehmitz, Michael; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen
Affiliation:        AA(Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)), AB(Ruhr-Univ. 
                    Bochum (Germany)), AC(Landessternwarte Heidelberg 
                    (Germany)), AD(Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany))
Publication:        Advanced Telescope and Instrumentation Control 
                    Software II.  Edited by Lewis, Hilton.  Proceedings 
                    of the SPIE, Volume 4848, pp. 387-393 (2002). (SPIE 
                    Homepage)
Publication Date:   12/2002
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2002: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2002SPIE.4848..387J

Abstract

In this paper we present the design of the control software for the LBT NIR spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral- Field Unit for Extragalactic Research (LUCIFER) which is one of the first-light instruments for the Large Bin-ocular Telescope (LBT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona. The LBT will be equipped with two identical LUCIFER instruments for both mirrors. Furthermore we give an overview of the intended hardware structure of the instrument. Since the project requires a detailed and exact modeling of the software we present UML diagrams starting with an overall model down to use case, activity and class diagrams including an example for one special instrument unit


Title:              Scientific potential for interferometric 
                    observations of the Galactic Center
Authors:            Eckart, Andreas; Mouawad, Nelly;
                    Krips, Melanie; Straubmeier, Christian;
                    Bertram, Thomas
Affiliation:        AA(Univ. Koeln (Germany)), AB(Univ. Koeln 
                    (Germany)), AC(Univ. Koeln (Germany)), AD(Univ. of 
                    Cologne (Germany)), AE(Univ. Koeln (Germany))
Publication:        Future Research Direction and Visions for Astronomy. 
                    Edited by Dressler, Alan M.    Proceedings of the 
                    SPIE, Volume 4835, pp. 12-21 (2002). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:   11/2002
Origin:             SPIE
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2002: SPIE--The International Society for 
                    Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is 
                    permitted for personal use only.
Bibliographic Code: 2002SPIE.4835...12E

Abstract

Stellar proper motions, radial velocities and accelarations obtained with high angular resolution techniques over the past decade have convincingly proven the presence of a central compact dark mass of 3x106 M. This mass is most likely associated with the compact radio source Sagittarius A* and represents one of the best candidates for a super massive Black Hole. This contribution summarizes some important observational facts and outlines the future possibilities for interferometric observations of the Galactic Center. In the near future interferometric observations of that region with the LBT, VLTI and the Keck Interferometer will be possible. Detailed measurements of the stellar orbits close to the center will allow us to precisely determine the compactness, extent and shape of any extended mass contribution e.g. due to a central stellar cusp. Emphasis will be put on the potential of the NIR LBT interferometric camera LINC. Given the combination of large telescope apertures, adaptive optics, and interferometry it is likely that stars with orbital time scales of the order of one year will be detected. Theses sources, however, will most likely not be on simple Keplerian orbits. The effects of measurable prograde relativistic and retrograde Newtonian periastron shifts will result in rosetta shaped orbits. An increased interferometric point source sensitivity will also allow for an effective search and monitoring of an IR counterpart of SgrA*.


Title:              V838 Monocerotis
Authors:            Wagner, R. M.; Starrfield, S. G.
Publication:        IAU Circ., 7992, 2 (2002).  Edited by Green, D. W. 
                    E. (IAUC Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2002
Origin:             CBAT
Objects:            V838 Mon
Bibliographic Code: 2002IAUC.7992....2W

Abstract

IAUC 7992 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.


Title:              Design study of the PEPSI polarimeter for the LBT
Authors:            Hofmann, A.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Woche, M.
Affiliation:        AA(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der 
                    Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany), 
                    AB(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der 
                    Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany), 
                    AC(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der 
                    Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany)
Publication:        Astronomische Nachrichten, vol. 323, no. 5, p. 
                    510-519 (AN Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2002
Origin:             AN
Keywords:           instrumentation: polarimeters, instrumentation: 
                    spectrographs, telescopes: LBT, stars: activity
DOI:                10.1002/1521-3994(200210)323:5
Bibliographic Code: 2002AN....323..510H

Abstract

We present the conceptual design of the two polarimetric channels of the PEPSI spectropolarimeter for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The two direct Gregorian f/15 focii of the LBT will take up two identical but independent full-Stokes IQUV polarimeters that themselves fiberfeed a high-resolution Echelle spectrograph (see the accompanying paper by Zerbi et al.). The polarizing units will be based on super-achromatic Fresnel-rhomb retarders and Foster prisms. A total of four fibers are foreseen to simultaneously direct two ordinary and two extraordinary light beams to the Echelle spectrograph. Both polarimetric units are layed out in a modular design, each one optimized to the polarization state in which it is used. A number of observing modes can be chosen that are optimized to the type of polarization that is expected from the target, e.g. circularly and linearly polarized light simultaneously, or linearly polarized light in both polarimeters, or integral light from one and polarized light from the other telescope, a.s.o.. Calibration would be provided for each polarimeter separately.


Title:              A new concept and a preliminary design for a high 
                    resolution (HR) and very-high resolution (VHR) 
                    spectrograph for the LBT
Authors:            Zerbi, F. M.; Spanò, P.; Conconi, P.;
                    Molinari, E.; Mazzoleni, R.; Pallavicini, R.;
                    Strassmeier, K. G.
Affiliation:        AA(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via 
                    Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (LC), Italy), AB(INAF - 
                    Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del 
                    Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy), AC(INAF - 
                    Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, 
                    I-23807 Merate (LC), Italy), AD(INAF - Osservatorio 
                    Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate 
                    (LC), Italy), AE(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di 
                    Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (LC), Italy), 
                    AF(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, 
                    Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy), 
                    AG(Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam (AIP), An 
                    der Sternwarte 16, D-14458 Potsdam, Germany)
Publication:        Astronomische Nachrichten, vol. 323, no. 5, p. 
                    499-509 (AN Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2002
Origin:             AN
Keywords:           instrumentation: spectrographs
DOI:                10.1002/1521-3994(200210)323:5
Bibliographic Code: 2002AN....323..499Z

Abstract

A way to fully exploit the large collecting area of modern 8-10m class telescopes is high resolution spectroscopy. Many astrophysical problems from planetary science to cosmology benefit from spectroscopic observations at the highest resolution currently achievable and would benefit from even higher resolutions. Indeed in the era of 8-10m class telescopes no longer the telescope collecting area but the size of the beam - which is related to the maximum size in which reflection gratings are manufactured - is what mainly limits the resolution. A resolution-slit product Rvarphi =~ 40,000 is the maximum currently provided by a beam of 20 cm illuminating the largest grating mosaics. We present a conceptual design for a spectrograph with Rvarphi =~ 80,000, i.e. twice as large as that of existing instruments. Examples of the possible exploitation of such a high Rvarphi value, including spectropolarimetry and very high resolution (R ~ 300,000), are discussed in detail. The new concept is illustrated through the specific case of a high resolution spectropolarimeter for the Large Binocular Telescope.


Title:              High-resolution ground-based spectroscopy: where and 
                    how ?
Authors:            Pallavicini, R.
Affiliation:        AA(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, 
                    Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy)
Publication:        Astronomische Nachrichten, vol. 323, no. 3/4, p. 
                    288-293 (AN Homepage)
Publication Date:   07/2002
Origin:             AN
Keywords:           instrumentation: spectrographs
DOI:                10.1002/1521-3994(200208)323:3/4
Bibliographic Code: 2002AN....323..288P

Abstract

An overview is presented of high-resolution optical spectrographs in operation or under development at large telescopes, with emphasis on those facilities best suited for the study of late-type stars and stellar surface inhomogeneities. Plans for the development of new high-resolution spectroscopic instruments are discussed with emphasis on the ICE spectrograph for the PEPSI spectropolarimeter at the LBT.


Title:              Restoration of interferometric images. I. The 
                    software package AIRY
Authors:            Correia, S.; Carbillet, M.; Boccacci, P.;
                    Bertero, M.; Fini, L.
Affiliation:        AA(UMR 6525 Astrophysique, Université de Nice-Sophia 
                    Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2, France; 
                    European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 
                    3107, casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile 
                    , AB(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy ), AC(INFM and DISI, Universitàdi Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova, Italy ), AD(INFM and DISI, Universitàdi Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova, Italy ), AE(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy ) 

Publication:        Astronomy and Astrophysics, v.387, p.733-743 (2002) 
                    (A&A Homepage)
Publication Date:   05/2002
Origin:             A&A
A&A Keywords:       techniques: interferometric, techniques: image 
                    processing, methods: data analysis, methods: 
                    numerical, stars: imaging
DOI:                10.1051/0004-6361:20020370
Bibliographic Code: 2002A&A...387..733C

Abstract

The Software Package AIRY (Astronomical Image Restoration in interferometrY) described in this paper is designed for simulation and/or multiple deconvolution of interferometric images. It was conceived for applications to the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), but can also be used for future interferometers of the same class. AIRY is modular, IDL-based, and designed to be used together with the CAOS (Code for Adaptive Optics Systems) Application Builder. As concerns multiple deconvolution AIRY includes an implementation of the method OS-EM (Ordered Subsets-Expectation Maximization) which is an accelerated version of the Lucy-Richardson method. After a description of the structure and modules of the software package, its use is illustrated with a few applications. In particular the intrinsic performance of the implemented restoration method is explored in the case of binary stars of different angular separations and magnitude differences, as well as in the case of a diffuse object. The possibility of obtaining super-resolved images of unresolved binary stars is also demonstrated.


Title:              Extragalactic Star Clusters: Speculations on the 
                    Future
Authors:            Gallagher, J. S.; Grebel, E. K.
Publication:        Extragalactic Star Clusters, IAU Symposium 207, Held 
                    in Pucon, Chile March 12-16, 2001.  Edited by D. 
                    Geisler, E.K. Grebel, and D. Minniti. San Francisco: 
                    Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2002., p.745
Publication Date:   00/2002
Origin:             AUTHOR
Comment:            ISBN: 1-58381-115-X
Bibliographic Code: 2002IAUS..207..745G

Abstract

We discuss the future possibilities for extragalactic star cluster research with the expected new ground-based and space-based telescopes and instrumentation. Significant gains are expected due to improved angular resolution, sensitivity, and area coverage particularly in the infrared and radio, accompanied by progress in evolutionary and dynamical modelling. Improvements in angular resolution are anticipated, especially through new adaptive optics systems (e.g., Keck, Gemini, VLT), and interferometry (e.g., Keck, VLT, LBT, ALMA, SMA, SkA), and space instrumentation (e.g., Chandra, NGST), enabling studies even of deeply embedded, forming extragalactic star clusters. Tidal disruption of Galactic clusters becomes observable through wide-area surveys such as the SDSS, VISTA, PRIME, including proper motion measurements through high-resolution imaging (e.g., HST, LBT, SIM, GAIA). Sensitive new optical and infrared spectrographs (e.g., HET, SALT, GranTeCan, Magellan, Keck, VLT, CELT, OWL, NGST) will push kinematic and abundance studies to new limits, allowing us detailed comparisons with model predictions. One important wavelength range for the study of young, massive star clusters, the far UV, appears to be neglected by future planned instrumentation.


Title:              Design improvement of the LBT adaptive secondary
Authors:            del Vecchio, Ciro; Gallieni, Daniele;
                    Martin, Hubert M.; Riccardi, Armando;
                    Brusa, Guido; Biasi, Roberto
Publication:        Beyond conventional adaptive optics : a conference 
                    devoted to the development of adaptive optics for 
                    extremely large telescopes.  Proceedings of the 
                    Topical Meeting held May 7-10, 2001, Venice, Italy. 
                    Edited by E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and 
                    N. Hubin. Garching, Germany: European Southern 
                    Observatory, 2002 ESO Conference and Workshop 
                    Proceedings, Vol.  58, ISBN 3923524617, p.435
Publication Date:   00/2002
Origin:             AUTHOR
Comment:            ISBN: 3923524617
Bibliographic Code: 2002bcao.conf..435D

Abstract

Not Available


Title:              The 20/20 telescope: MCAO imaging at the individual 
                    and combined foci
Authors:            Angel, R.; Lloyd-Hart, Michael; Hege, Keith;
                    Sarlot, Roland; PEng, Chien
Publication:        Beyond conventional adaptive optics : a conference 
                    devoted to the development of adaptive optics for 
                    extremely large telescopes.  Proceedings of the 
                    Topical Meeting held May 7-10, 2001, Venice, Italy. 
                    Edited by E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and 
                    N. Hubin. Garching, Germany: European Southern 
                    Observatory, 2002 ESO Conference and Workshop 
                    Proceedings, Vol.  58, ISBN 3923524617, p. 17
Publication Date:   00/2002
Origin:             AUTHOR
Comment:            ISBN: 3923524617
Bibliographic Code: 2002bcao.conf...17A

Abstract

In order to apply adaptive wavefront correction over a finite field of view, it is necessary to resolve the aberrations contributed by different heights in the atmosphere. Full sampling over a field of view, f, requires a ring of laser beacons with angular diameter at least f+D/h, ie about f+an arcminute for either Rayleigh beacons at 25 km used with an 8 m telescope or for sodium beacons used with a 30 m telescope. For the 8.4 m LBT telescopes, we plan to use Rayleigh beacons at 25 km. With 6W lasers, strong photon fluxes (as from 10th magnitude natural stars) will be recovered by integrating the return over a height range equal to the atmospheric scale height. We describe an optical relay placed after the Cassegrain focus to hold in focus the laser pulses as they rise through several km. Its key element is a mirror moving with oscillatory axial motion at the laser pulse frequency of 1 kHz.. The mirror retroreflects the light through optics like a microscope objective to reimage the entire ring. Individual beacon images are relayed to their own wavefront sensors. Tomographic solutions to reconstruct stellar wavefronts across the field from the multiple beacon wavefronts are being developed by Brusa and Lloyd-Hart.


Title:              Mechancial design of the LSST telescope and 
                    enclosure
Authors:            Davison, W.; Angel, J. R. P.
Affiliation:        AA(The University of Arizona, Steward Observatory), 
                    AB(The University of Arizona, Steward Observatory)
Publication:        American Astronomical Society, 199th AAS Meeting, 
                    #102.18; Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
                    Society, Vol. 33, p.1467
Publication Date:   12/2001
Origin:             AAS
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2001: American Astronomical Society
Bibliographic Code: 2001AAS...19910218D

Abstract

The three mirror optical system being developed for the LSST presents some interesting mechanical challenges. The optical support structure must hold three large mirrors (8.4, 3.5 and 4.2 m diameter) in accurate alignment, and allow for their periodic recoating. The telescope must be agile, with no more than 5 seconds allowed to repoint by 3 degrees and settle at a new field. To achieve such high performance drives we have adopted a mechanical concept based on the C-ring support of the LBT. Preliminary designs achieve a lowest resonant frequency over 7 Hz, and 10 Hz should be achievable, higher than is realized for conventional 8 m telescope designs. This should provide exceptional performance. The building concept places the telescope and handling crane in a co-rotating housing above a large, stationary service building, with access via a trap door. Relatively small building size and efficient handling of optics will make for a low cost, high performance observatory.


Title:              LSST Optical Design
Authors:            Angel, J. R. P.; Claver, C. F.; Sarlot, R.;
                    Martin, H. M.; Burge, J. H.; Tyson, J. A.;
                    Wittman, D.; Cook, Kem
Affiliation:        AA(Steward Obs., U. Arizona), AB(NOAO), AC(Steward 
                    Obs., U. Arizona), AD(Steward Obs., U. Arizona), 
                    AE(Steward Obs. and Optical Sci., U. Arizona), 
                    AF(Lucent Technologies), AG(Lucent Technologies), 
                    AH(LLNL)
Publication:        American Astronomical Society, 199th AAS Meeting, 
                    #101.07; Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
                    Society, Vol. 33, p.1462
Publication Date:   12/2001
Origin:             AAS
Abstract Copyright: (c) 2001: American Astronomical Society
Bibliographic Code: 2001AAS...19910107A

Abstract

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will be a facility for digitally surveying the entire visible sky for the purpose of cataloging Earth crossing asteroids, exploring the nature of dark matter and dark energy in the universe and opening the faint optical transient time window on the universe. This concept was strongly endorsed by the National Academy of Sciences in their report "Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millenium". In response to this endorsement we present here the design of an 8.4m modified Paul telescope that expands the etendue ("A - Omega") product by a factor of 20-50 beyond any previously realized design. The telescope presented here will deliver a 3 degree diameter field of view (7 sq. degrees) over the wavelength range 0.3-1$,1'<(B m. The plate scale of 50 microns/arcsec (f/1.25) is chosen to match the pixel size of a large mosaic CCD detector 0.5 m in diameter. The primary and secondary mirrors are strongly aspheric. The f/1 primary can be made using polishing techniques and metrology methods pioneered at the Mirror Lab for the 8.4 m f/1.1 LBT primaries. The 3.5 m convex secondary is twice the size of the largest secondary yet manufactured, the 1.7 m MMT f/5 secondary. The current proven method for testing during manufacture uses a full size hologram on a transmissive element and would be expensive to scale up. Alternates involving mechanical metrology and sub-aperture optical tests are under consideration. In operation the primary mirror figure accuracy will be maintained by active optics, as is the practice for all telescope mirrors >= 6.5 m diameter. To maintain the design image quality of >80 field, the optical system must be held in accurate alignment also by an active system. We have explored the tolorances to misalignment, and find that uncompensated errors in decenters and tilts must be kept less than a few tens of microns. A number of techniques are available for continuous or periodic metrology that should allow realization of this goal. They include comercial laser ranging which is now accurate to 7 microns, retro-reflectors, holograms located on the mirrors and wavefront analysis across the field. Correction may be applied to the elements directly, or for some period could be made using the secondary mirror alone as a compensator.


Title:              Nulling interferometry for studying other planetary 
                    systems: Techniques and observations
Authors:            Hinz, Philip Mark
Affiliation:        AA(THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA)
Publication:        Thesis (PhD). THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA, Source 
                    DAI-B 62/04, p. 1902, Oct 2001, 148 pages.
Publication Date:   10/2001
Category:           Physics: Astronomy and Astrophysics
Origin:             UMI
Comment:            Publication Number: 3010268; Advisor: Angel, J. 
                    Roger P.; ISBN: 3-8265-8325-6; ISBN: 3-8265-8658-1
Bibliographic Code: 2001PhDT.........8H

Abstract

Nulling interferometry is an important technique in the quest for direct detection of extrasolar planets. It is central to NASA's plans for a Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission to detect and characterize Earth-like planets. This thesis presents the first experiments to demonstrate that the technique is a useful tool for ground-based observations as well. It demonstrates the ability of the technique to study faint, circumstellar environments otherwise not easily observed. In addition the observations and experiments allow more confident estimation of expected sensitivity to planetary systems around nearby stars. The old MMT was used for the first telescope experiments of stellar suppression via nulling. The stellar suppression achieved was sufficient to observe thermal emission from cool dust in the outflows around late-type stars. Based on the original MMT prototype, which worked at ambient temperature, I have constructed a cryogenic nulling interferometer for use with the renovated 6.5 m MMT. Features include the capability of sensing and correcting the phase between the two arms of the interferometer, achromatic tuning of the null using a unique symmetric beam-splitter, and compatibility with the deformable secondary of the MMT. The instrument has been used in a laboratory setup with an artificial source to demonstrate a high level of suppression. Commissioning of the instrument took place at the MMT in June 2000 using the fixed f/9 secondary. The instrument was aligned, phased, and used for science observations of 17 stars over five nights. The future impact of nulling with the MMT and the Large Binocular Telescope is sketched out. These telescopes will be sensitive to very faint levels of zodiacal dust, indicative of planetary companions and giving us clues as to the make up of planetary systems. Substellar companions down to near Jupiter mass will be detectable around the nearest stars for the LBT, allowing direct imaging of long-period giant planets. The detection of such companions will be complementary to the Doppler velocity searches, currently so successful in verifying the existence of planets, thus giving a balanced view of the prevalence and range of separations possible for giant planets around nearby stars.


Title:              V445 Puppis
Authors:            Henden, A. A.; Wagner, R. M.; Starrfield, S. G.
Publication:        IAU Circ., 7730, 1 (2001).  Edited by Green, D. W. 
                    E. (IAUC Homepage)
Publication Date:   10/2001
Origin:             CBAT
Objects:            V445 Pup
Bibliographic Code: 2001IAUC.7730....1H

Abstract

IAUC 7730 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.


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